从汉语到十大语系

                Od Chinese do 10 Leading Language Families

 

 

大家好!我们今天聊聊语系。同学们经常会问这样的问题: 为什么汉语中有这么奇怪的说法?


Hello everyone! Let's talk about the language department today. Students will often ask such questions: why are there so strange ways of saying in Chinese?

 

还债return the debt    (谁欠谁的债啊?)

打扫卫生clean hygiene/sanitation    (把卫生和房间一起打扫干净吗?)

看书see book    (看书还是读书?)

发生了火灾happened fire    (火灾发生了?)

爆发了战争broke out war    (战争爆发了?)

价格很便宜Price is cheap.    (卖的是价格吗?)

他死了十年了He has died for ten years.    (这么多年一直在死,到底死了没有?)

 

还有,
为什么英语中找不到“笔””咱“这类词?
为什么汉语有4个声调?
为什么?为什么?为什么?


Also,
Why can't we find words such as "笔"、”咱“ in English?
Why are there four tones in Chinese?
Why? Why? Why?

 

杨老师的回答是这样的:
这就是汉语独特的语言逻辑、认知、语音与词汇和语法系统、语言形态、文化背景和思维方式(即相对于西方分析思维的综合思维)。关于这些,我们留待以后逐项详细讨论。


JYang’s answer is like this:
This is the unique Chinese linguistic logic, cognition, phonetic and lexical as well as grammatical systems, linguistic morphology, cultural background and way of thinking (that is, thinking in synthesis, as opposed to analytic thinking in the West). We will discuss each of these in detail later.

 

 

我们再看一个例子。Let's take another example. 

1. 汉语in Chinese:他从水中把它取出来。

2. 英语in English:He took it out of the water.

3. 波兰语in Polish:Wyjął go z wody.

4. 印第安人阿尔贡金语In Indian Algonquian:akuopinam。 

  (阿尔贡金印第安人曾是北美大陆1/3土地的主人。Algonquian Indians used to be the owners of one third of the North American continent) 

5. 印第安人美诺米尼语In Indian Menominee:akuapiinam。 

  (现在这些印第安人集中居住在美国威斯康辛州的保留地中。Now these Indians all live on the reservation in Wisconsin, USA) 

 

在上述印第安语言中,所有的语句只有1个单词,称为“语句词”。为什么?为什么有这么大的不同?因为它们分属不同的语系。

In the above Indian languages, all sentences contain only one word, called "statement word".why? Why they make such big differences? Because they belong to different language families.

 

 

好,我们现在就来聊一聊语系。根据历史比较语言学,世界上的3,000多种语言,根据其亲缘关系分别归属于100多个家族即语系。


Well, let's talk about language families now. According to historical comparative linguistics, more than 3,000 languages in the world belong to more than 100 families, or language families, according to their kinship.

 

世界上的语言就像一棵繁茂的大树,树枝即是不同的语系,大树枝上的分枝即是不同的语族。来自一个共同原始母语的所有语言都划归到同一个语系,语系下面分有语族(及亚语族或次语族) 语支 语言 方言 土语(即亚方言、次方言)等。


The languages in the world is like a lush tree. The branches are different language families, and the subbranches on the main branches are different language groups. All languages from a common original mother tongue are classified into the same language family. Under a Language Family are Language Groups (and Language Sub-Groups) Language Branches Languages Dialects Sub-Dialects, etc.

 

英语等众多西方语言属于第一大语系即印欧语系,而汉语则属于第二大语系即汉藏语系。


English and many other western languages belong to the Indo-European language family, the biggest language family, while Chinese belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family, the second biggest language family.

 

汉语来自于史前的原始汉藏语,文字为象形表意的方块文字,倾向于词根型孤立语。从句法关系方面,汉语是典型的分析型语言。
英语则来自原始印欧语,文字以拉丁字母为基础,属拼音文字,属虚词型屈折语。英语在某种程度上也具有分析型语言的主要特点,就是说句法关系由虚词和词序来表示。


Chinese derived from the primitive Sino-Tibetan language in prehistoric times, and the characters are pictographic and ideographic square ones. It leans towards root-type isolated language. In terms of syntactic relations, Chinese is a typical analytical language.
English, on the other hand, derived from the original Indo-European language, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet, phonetic, a dummy flexion language. To some extent, English is also of some major features of analytical language, that is, syntactic relations are showed by function words and word order.

 

所谓(内部)屈折,是指无需其他词汇,仅以词的形态变化来标识各种认知概念和语法概念:性、数、格、时、体、态、式、级,例如saleswoman(售货员),students(学生),I saw him.(我见他)等。
但是汉语基本上没有词汇形态变化的能力,无法标识出范畴概念和认知概念,需要用更多的词汇来表示,如He was a teacher,汉语要说”他原先/曾经是个教师”。


The so-called (internal) flexion means the identification of various grammatical and cognitive concepts such as gender, number, case, tense, state, voice, mood, and grade. For example, saleswoman, students, I saw him, and so forth.
But basically Chinese is of no ability to change its word morphology, unable to identify category concepts and cognitive concepts, and more words are to be applied for them. For example, for English“He was a teacher”, in Chinese we should say in this way: “heis a teacher in the past/once”.

 

此外,根据系统功能语言学,“主题--述题”是汉语独特的重要语句结构,即“主位--述位”结构而非句法概念的“主语--谓语”结构。主题即话题,是已知的信息,述位是新信息,是对话题的叙述。
例如我们经常看到类似这样的汉语:“汽车我卖了,钱我存银行了”。这是很地道的汉语。谈话的中心话题和重点是汽车和钱,而不是“我”,所以要放在句首,“我”仅是动作的执行者而已,译成英语要放到句首即主语的位置。


In addition, according to systemic functional linguistics, "topic-narration" is a unique and important sentence structure in Chinese, i.e., "theme-rheme" structure rather than "subject-predicate" structure of the syntactic concept. Theme is the topic, which is the known information, while rheme is the new information, the narration of the topic.
For example, we often see Chinese as "The car I sold, the money I deposit the bank". Very authentic Chinese. The main topic and focus of the conversation is the car and money, not "I", so the car and money should be placed at the initial place of the sentence. "I" is only the doer of the action. When translated into English, “I” should be placed at the  initial place of the sentence, the place of the subject.

 

 

下面,我们就来浏览十大语系。
Next, let's skim through the 10 leading language families.

1. 印欧语系Indo-European Family

印欧语系是世界上最大的语系,使用者占全球总人口的一半以上。印欧语系的语言有屈折的特性。印欧语系的分布,从美洲、经过欧洲,一直延伸到印度次大陆北部。一般认为原始印欧语是在新石器时代(约公元前7000年)发源于黑海北部森林地区(现乌 克兰、立陶宛一带)。这些欧洲大陆的原始居民在公元前3500—前2500年间开始迁移,向西到欧洲最西端,往南到地中海,向北直至斯堪的纳维亚,往东到达印度。 

Indo-European family is the biggest language family in the world, and its users account for more than half of the global population. Indo-European languages are flexural.The distribution of the Indo-European family extends from Americas through Europe, to the northern Indian subcontinent. It is generally believed that the Proto-Indo-European language derived in the northern forest area of the Black Sea (now Ukraine and Lithuania) during the Neolithic Age (about 7,000 BC). These primitive inhabitants of the European continent began to migrate between 3,500 BC and 2,500 BC, westward to the westernmost end of Europe, southward to the Mediterranean, northward to Scandinavia, and eastward to India. 

 

日耳曼语族Germanic Group 英语English,德语German,荷兰语Dutch,丹麦语Danish、挪威语Norwegian,瑞典语Swedish,冰岛语Icelandic,哥特语Gothic,(北非North Africa)梵代尔语Vandal
 

 

罗曼语族Roman Group 法语French,意大利语Italian,西班牙语Spanish,葡萄牙语Portuguese,罗马尼亚语Romanian,加泰隆尼亚语Catalan,普罗旺斯语Provencal,摩尔多瓦语Moldovian,奥斯干语Oscan,达尔马西亚语Dalmatian,乌布利亚语Umbrian
 

 

斯拉夫语族Slavic Group 俄语Russian,白俄罗斯语Belarusian,波兰语Polish,乌克兰语Ukrainian,波希米亚语Bohemian(捷克语Czech,斯洛伐克语Slovak),保加利亚语Bulgarian,塞尔维亚语Serbian,克罗地亚语Croatian,斯洛文尼亚语Slovenian,马其顿语Macedonia,波斯尼亚语Bosnian 
 

 

凯尔特语族Celtic Group  威尔士语Welsh,爱尔兰盖尔语Irish Gaelic,苏格兰盖尔语Scottish Gaelic,康沃尔语Cornish,高卢语Gaulish,曼岛语 Manx
 

 

波罗的语族Baltic Group 立陶宛语Lithuanian,拉脱维亚语Latvian
 

 

希腊语Greek 仅此一支 the only one
 

 

阿尔巴尼亚语Albanian 仅此一支 the only one
 

 

亚美尼亚语Armenian 仅此一支 the only one
 

 

印度--伊朗语族Indo-Iranian Group 波斯语Persian,库尔德语Kurdish,(阿富汗Afghanistan)普什图语Pashto,(高加索Caucasus)奥塞梯语Ossete/Ossetian,(塔吉克斯坦Tajikistan)塔吉克语Tajik,印地语Hindi,乌尔都语Urdu,尼泊尔语Nepali,孟加拉语Bengali,僧伽罗语Sinhala,马尔代夫语Maldivian,吉普赛语Gypsy(罗姆语Roma)
 

 

吐火罗语,赫梯语Tocharian, Hittite 仅此一支 the only one
 

 

 



2. 汉藏语系Sino-Tibetan Family

 

按使用人数来算,汉藏语系是仅次于印欧语系的第二大语系。它包括世界上使用人数最多的语言--汉语普通话。汉藏语系的语言一般是由单音节字组成的声调语言。汉语北方话有4声,泰语有5声,粤语有9声。

Calculated by the number of users, Sino-Tibetan family is the second biggest language family next to Indo-European language family, including Mandarin Chinese, the most spoken language in the world. The languages of the Sino-Tibetan family are generally tonal languages composed of monosyllable characters. Northern Chinese has four tones, Thai has five tones, and Cantonese nine tones. 

 

 汉语Sinitic Language 官话Mandarin (普通话Standard Chinese),北方方言Northern Dialect,吴方言Wu Dialect,湘方言Xiang Dialect,赣方言Gan Dialect,客家方言Hakka Dialect,闽北方言Northern Fujian Dialect,闽南方言Southern Fujian Dialect,粤方言Cantonese Dialect
 

 

藏缅语族Tibeto-Burman Group 藏语Tibetan,缅甸语Burmese,(中国China)彝语Yi,傈僳语Lisu,拉祜语Lahu,(缅甸Burma)克伦语Kare,(不丹Bhutan)宗卡语Jonkha,(尼泊尔Nepal)内瓦里语Newari
 

 

侗台语族Tai Group 泰语Thai,老挝语Lao,(中国China)壮语Zhuang,布依语Buyi,侗语Dong,怒语Nu
 

 

苗瑶语族Miao-Yao Group 苗语Miao,瑶语Yao,畲语She
 

 

中国八大方言 8 Leading dialects in China



3. 闪含语系Semitic-Hamitic Family

也称“亚非语系”或“阿非罗—亚细亚语系”(Afro-Asiatic Family),主要分布在亚洲的阿拉伯半岛和非洲的北部。圣经说挪亚的儿子闪是希伯来人的祖先,含是亚述人和非洲人的祖先。A

lso called "Afro Asian" or "Afro-Asiatic Family", it is mainly distributed in the Arabian Peninsula of Asia and northern Africa. The Bible says that Shem, Noah's son, is the ancestor of Hebrews, and Ham is the ancestor of Assyrians and Africans. 

 

闪语族Semitic Group 马耳他语Maltese,希伯来语Hebrew,(埃塞俄比亚Ethiopia)阿姆哈拉语Amharic,(亚述王朝Assyrian)阿卡德语Akkadian,亚述语Assyrian,阿拉米语Aramaic
 

 

埃及语族Egyptian Group 已灭绝Extinct
 

 

贝贝尔语族Berber Group 特哇力语Tuareg,卡比勒语Kabyle,塔马舍克语Tamazight
 

 

 库施特语族Cushite Group 索马里语Somali,加拉语Galla,贝扎语Beja
 

 

乍得语族Chadic Group 尼日利亚、乍得和喀麦隆地区使用的约600种语言。主要是豪萨语About 600 languages spoken in Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon. Mainly Hausa
 


4. 乌拉尔语系Uralic Family

有三种欧洲语言不属于印欧语系:芬兰语、匈牙利语和爱沙尼亚语。它们属于乌拉尔语系。乌拉尔语的原始居民在大约1500年前从乌拉尔山脉的西伯利亚一侧迁入欧洲。

Three European languages are not part of the Indo-European language family: Finnish, Hungarian and Estonian. They belong to the Ural language family. The original Uralic-speaking inhabitants moved to Europe from the Siberian side of the Ural Mountains about 1,500 years ago. 

 

芬兰—乌戈尔语族Finno-Ugric Group 芬兰语Finnish,爱沙尼亚语Estonian,(西伯利亚Siberian)莫尔多维亚语Mordvin、乌德穆尔特语Udmurt,科米语Komi,匈牙利语Hungarian,(中西伯利亚Central Siberia)奥斯恰克语Ostyak、沃古尔语Vogul
 

 

萨莫耶德语族Samoyed Group 塞尔库普语Selkup,涅涅茨语Nenets,牙纳桑语Nganasan,埃内茨语Enets
 


5. 阿尔泰语系Altaic Family

阿尔泰语系主要分布在中国、蒙古、土耳其以及一些中亚国家。使用阿尔泰语系各种语言的人民早期是中国北方的游牧民族。匈奴、乌桓、鲜卑、突厥、契丹、女真、蒙古、满各个民族在这一地区直至西亚和东欧都曾建立国家。

The Altaic language family is mainly distributed in China, Mongolia, Turkey and some Central Asian countries. The people speaking languages of Altaic family were nomads in northern China in the early days. The Hun, Wuhuan, Xianbei, Turkic, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongolia, and Manchu nationalities once established countries in this region as far as West Asia and Eastern Europe. 

 

 突厥语族Turkic Group 土耳其语Turkish,阿塞拜疆语Azerbaijani,土库曼语Turkmen,哈萨克语Kazakh,吉尔吉斯语Kyrgyz,乌兹别克语Uzbek,鞑靼语Tatar,维吾尔语Uyghur,巴什基尔语Bashkir
 

 

蒙古语族Mongolian Group 布利亚特语Buryat,卡尔梅克语Kalmyk
 

 

满--通古斯语族Manchu-Tungusic Group (西伯利亚Siberia)埃文基语Evenki,通古斯语Tunguse,满语Manchu,锡伯语Sibo
  

 

6. 高加索语系Caucasian Family

高加索语系由黑海和里海之间的高加索山脉得名。

The Caucasian family is named after the Caucasus Mountains between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. 

 

卡尔特维里语族Kartvelian Branch 格鲁吉亚语Georgian,明格雷利亚Mingrelian,拉兹语Laz,斯凡语Svan
 

 

阿布哈兹 --阿第盖语族Abkhaz-Adyghean Branch 阿布哈兹语Abkhaz,阿第盖语Adyghe,卡巴尔达语Kabardian,阿巴兹语Abaza
 

 

东北地区North-east area 车臣语Chechen,印古什语Ingush,达吉斯坦语Daghestanian,阿瓦尔语Avar,莱兹金语 Lezgin,拉克语Lak,列兹吉语Lezgi,塔巴萨兰语,Tabasaran
 


7. 南岛语系Austronesian Family

或称“马来—玻利尼西亚语系”。该语系从印度洋、马来半岛、东南亚,越过太平洋直到复活节岛,由一千多种语言组成。该语系的使用者据说最早起源于黄河谷地,公元前 2,500年左右经台湾迁移到菲律宾,公元前约1,000年进一步迁至印度尼西亚、太平洋诸岛屿。

Or called "Malayo-Polynesian Family". This language family consists of more than 1,000 languages from the Indian Ocean, the Malay Peninsula, Southeast Asia, across the Pacific Ocean to Easter Island. The speakers of this language family are said to have originated in the Yellow River Valley. They migrated to the Philippines via Taiwan in about 2,500 BC, and then moved further to Indonesia and Pacific islands in about 1,000 BC. 

 

台湾语族Formosan Group (台湾Taiwan)阿美语Amis,泰雅语Atayal,排湾语Paiwan,邹语Tsou
 

 

印度尼西亚语族Indonesian Group 马来语Malay, (印度尼西亚Indonesia)印尼语,Indonesian爪哇语Javanese,巽他语Sundanese,马都拉语Madurese,巴厘语Balinese,(菲律宾Philippines)比萨亚语Visayan,他加禄语Tagalog,(马达加斯加Madagascar)马尔加什语Malagasy
 

 

密克罗尼西亚语族Micronesian Group 马绍尔群岛语Marshallese,吉尔伯特群岛语Gilbertese,雅浦岛语Yapese,瑙鲁语Nauruan
 

 

美拉尼西亚语族Melanesian Group 斐济语Fijian,所罗门群岛语Solomonese
 

 

玻利尼西亚语族Polynesian Group (新西兰New Zealand)毛利语Maori,萨摩亚群岛语Samoan,塔希提岛语Tahitian,夏威夷语Hawaiian,复活节岛语Rapa Nui
 


8. 南亚语系Austroasiatic Family

南亚语系分布在印度东部至中南半岛的亚洲东南部地区。

Austroasiatic family is distributed from eastern India to Southeast Asia of the Indochina Peninsula. 

 

越芒语族Viet-Muong Group 越南语Vietnamese,芒语Muong
 

 

孟--高棉语族Mon-Khmer Group 孟语Mon,高棉语Cambodian,尼科巴语 Nicobarese,卡西语Khasi),(中国China)佤语Wa,布朗语Blang,德昂语 De’ang
 

 

扪达语族Munda Group (印度India)扪达语Munda,,科尔库语Korku,......
 


9. 达罗毗荼语系Dravidian Family

达罗毗荼语系分布于印度、斯里兰卡北部、马来西亚,新加坡。

Dravidian family is distributed in India, northern Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Singapore. 

 

达罗毗荼语系Dravidian family 泰米尔语Tamil,马来雅兰语Malayalam,泰卢固语,卡拿拉语Canarese,婆罗灰语Brahui
 


10. 尼日尔—刚果语系Niger-Congo Family

尼日尔—刚果语系包括撒哈拉沙漠以南非洲大陆的共900多种语言。该语系起源于西非,逐渐迁徙至非洲东南部。非洲国家由于其被殖民的历史,非洲诸语言常常不按国界划分,通常一种语言可能被几个国家同时使用,一个国家也可能有多种不同的语言。 

The Niger-Congo family includes more than 900 languages spoken in sub-Saharan Africa. This language family derived from West Africa and gradually migrated to southeast Africa.Owing to their colonization history, African languages are often not divided according to national boundaries. Usually one language may be used by several countries at the same time, and one country may also use many different languages. 

 

班图语族Bantu Branch 斯瓦希里语Swahili,干达语Ganda,卢旺达语Ruanda,隆迪语Rundi,鲁巴语Luba, 林加拉语Lingala,刚果语Kongo,贝姆巴语Bemba,肖纳语Shona,恩德贝勒语Ndebele,茨瓦纳语Tswana,祖鲁语Zulu 
 

 

撒哈拉沙漠以南south of the Sahara 弗拉尼语Fulani,马林克语Malinke,门德语Mende,特维 语Twi,埃维语Ewe,莫西语Mossi,约鲁巴语Yoruba,伊波语 Ibo,科佩勒语Kpelle,沃洛夫语Wolof,方语Fang。

(撒哈拉沙漠以南的九个语族有900多种语言)

(There are more than 900 languages in the nine language groups south of the Sahara Desert.)

 

注 Note日语、朝鲜语语系归属未定。日语使用汉字及两套假名(片假名与平假名)。朝鲜语过去使用汉字,现用一套600多年前其独创的一种拼音文字系统。

The affiliations of Japanese and Korean are still uncertain. Japanese uses Chinese characters and two sets of kana (片仮名/かたかな/カタカナ katakana and平仮名/ひらがな/ヒラガナ hiragana). Korean once used Chinese characters, but now uses a phonetic writing system originally created more than 600 years ago.

 

世界主要语言 The major languages in the world


杨老师有个温馨建议

课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                                  

JYang has a warm suggestion

What do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 

 


“杨老师汉学”有3个栏目的内容

(请点击顶部蓝色"杨老师汉学"阅读更多)

There are 3 sections in "JYangSinology"

(Please click the blue"JYangSinology" 

  on the top and read more)

1.教学栏Teaching section

课堂辅导Our lessons

基本句型Sentence paterns

专业汉语Special Chinese

时政汉语Current Affairs Chinese1

时政汉语Current Affairs Chinese2

 

2.文化栏Culture section

中国知识About China

武术太极Martial arts & taiji

成语故事Idioms and stories

形象表达Vivid expressions

诗词歌曲Peoms and songs

 

3.信息栏Information section

关于本公众号About JYangSinology

汉语知识Chinese language

HSK汉语水平考试

量词缩略Measure words & Abbreviation

轻松聊天Free talk


学习汉语的课堂;了解中国的窗口

A Classroom for Chinese Learning;

A Window for Knowing China