一入琥珀深似海

                           Touching Amber leads to an unknown world like sea

 

词语学习 Words to Learn


琥(hǔ)珀(pò) amber/succinite/bursztyn


有(yǒu)机(jī)宝(bǎo)石(shí) organic gem/gemstones


蜜(mì)蜡(là) beeswax


天(tiān)然(rán) natural


优(yōu)化(huà) modified


压(yā)制(zhì) pressed


波(bō)罗(luó)的(di)海(hǎi) Baltic Sea


格(ɡé)但(dàn)斯(sī)克(kè) Gdansk


饰(shì)品(pǐn) ornaments/jewellery


项(xiànɡ)链(liàn) necklace


吊(diào)坠(zhuì) pendant


手(shǒu)链(liàn) wrist chain


手(shǒu)镯(zhuó) bracelet


圆(yuán)珠(zhū) round beads


佛(fó)珠(zhū) Buddha beads


桶(tǒnɡ)珠(zhū) barrel-shaped beads


手(shǒu)串(chuàn) wrist beads string


镶(xiānɡ)银(yín) inlaid with silver/silver inlaid


镶(xiānɡ)金(jīn) inlaid with gold/gold inlaid


柯(kē)巴(bā)树(shù)脂(zhī) copal resin


琥(hǔ)珀(pò)酸(suān) Succinic acid/Amber acid;

 

                                           

 

大家好!我们今天好好地聊聊很多人所不知的有机宝石--琥珀。一定要耐心哦。
Hello, everyone! Today let’s have a good talk about amber gemstones that many people lack the knowledge about. Do be patient, please.

 

琥珀-活着的石头 AMBER- THE LIVING STONE Bursztyn- Żyjący kamień

 

1
有机宝石来自于有生命的动植物,所以比无机宝石更珍贵,包括琥珀、珍珠、珊瑚、煤玉、象牙、砗磲、龟甲、硅化木、动物化石等。
有机宝石在考古、医用等方面极具价值。例如,在中国贵州发现的距今6.1亿年的“笼脊球”化石,基本解决了哲学界自古以来争论不休的有关生命起源的悖论问题“先有鸡还是先有蛋”:先有蛋!
Organic gems came from living animals and plants, and therefore are more precious than inorganic gems, including amber, pearls, corals, coal jade, ivory, giant clams, tortoiseshell, silicified wood, animal fossils, etc.
Organic gemstones are extremely valuable in archaeology and medicine. For example, the discovery of 610 million year old "cage ridge ball" fossil in Guizhou Province, essentially solved the controversial paradoxical question about the origin of life, which has been debated since time immemorial in philosophical circles.:"Which came first,chicken or egg?": Egg came first!

2
琥珀一般产生于四千万至六千万年前的始新世纪。现存最古老的琥珀的年龄为2亿6千万年。
Generally amber came during the Eocene Age, 40 to 60 million years ago. The oldest extant amber is 260 million years old.

琥珀陷阱 The amber trap worked like sticky, lava, drop and puddle

 

 

3
琥珀在中国古代称为”瑿“或”遗玉“,传说是老虎的魂魄,因此又有”虎(hǔ)魄(pò)“之称,琥(hǔ)珀(pò)因此得名。
Amber was called "瑿(yi, pterygium)" or "遗玉(yiyu, remaining jade)" in ancient China. According to legend, it is the soul of tiger虎(hǔ)魄(pò), hence the name amber (琥(hǔ)珀(pò)sounds like 虎(hǔ)魄(pò)"tiger soul").

4
根据产地特点,琥珀分为:
According to the origin, amber is classified as:

  1. 土珀:产于缅甸、墨西哥山谷中。缅甸蜜蜡颜色深、硬度高。

 Earth amber: from the valleys of Myanmar and Mexico. Burmese beeswax is darker and harder.

  1. 矿珀或坑珀:产于中国抚顺煤矿(煤玉)和多米尼加(蓝珀)。抚顺矿珀形成于5,000年前,目前已资源耗尽;多米尼加矿珀在紫外线照射下呈现天空蓝或蓝紫色,因而得名,目前仅占全球产量1%。

Mine amber or pit amber: from Fushun coal mine (coal jade) of China and Dominica (blue amber). Fushun mineral amber was formed 5,000 years ago, and its resources have been exhausted; Dominican mineral amber looks blue or blue-purple when exposed to ultraviolet light, hence the name, and currently accounts for only 1% of global production.

 

抚顺煤玉 Fushun coal jade

 

多米尼加蓝珀 Dominican blue amber

 

3)海珀sea amber或水珀、海石:经过海水的冲洗,质量较优,主要产于波罗的海沿岸。
Sea amber or water amber, sea stone: Washed by sea water, the quality is higher, mainly from the Baltic coast.

5
古希腊神话中,琥珀是太阳神之子法厄同的妹妹为哀悼其兄而流下的眼泪。
波罗的海琥珀在古代被称为“北方的黄金”。它是一种针叶树的石化树脂,生长在大约4000万年前的波罗的海地区,分布于波罗的海沿岸的波兰、俄罗斯“琥珀之都”的加里宁格勒、立陶宛、斯堪的纳维亚以及乌克兰等地。
In ancient Greek mythology, amber is the tears shed by the sister of Phaerthon, son of the sun god, in mourning for her brother.
Baltic amber was called the „gold of the north” by people in ancient times. It is a petrified resin of conifers that grew about 40 million years ago in the area which is now the Baltic Sea, distributed in Poland,  Kaliningrad known as Russia's "amber capital", Lithuania, Scandinavia and Ukraine along the Baltic coast.

6
琥珀宫,又称琥珀屋、琥珀厅,整个宫殿由琥珀和黄金装饰而成的,极端奢华,使用了超过55平方米的上等琥珀,重达6吨,历时10年于1716年在柏林夏洛特堡宫建成,曾被称作“世界第八大奇迹”,后赠与俄罗斯。。第二次世界大战中,被德军拆装运回德国后离奇失踪。
1979到2003年,俄罗斯用与原建筑同样多、同样的材料,在圣彼得堡的叶卡捷琳娜宫重建了琥珀宫,并对外开放参观。
The Amber Palace (Янтарная комната), also called Amber House  or Amber Hall, was entirely decorated with amber and gold, extremely luxurious. It used over 55 square meters of high-quality amber, weighing 6 tons, lasting 10 years it was built in 1716 at Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin, and it was once known as the "Eighth Wonder of the World". Later is was given to Russia as gift. . During the Second World War, it was disassembled and shipped back to Germany by the German army and then disappeared mysteriously.
From 1979 to 2003, Russia rebuilt the Amber Palace in the Екатерининский дворец (Katharinen palast, Catherine Palace) in St. Petersburg, consuming the same amount and materials as the original building, and opened it to the public.

 

 

7
波兰拥有最高品质的波罗的海琥珀。格但斯克被誉为“世界琥珀之都”,是国际琥珀协会总部所在地。在格但斯克地区有大约1,000家生产琥珀饰品的公司。波兰出产的每一个琥珀制品都是独一无二的,记住这一点特别重要。
Poland is the home of the highest quality Baltic amber. Gdansk is known as the "Amber Capital of the World" housing the headquarters of the International Amber Association. There are about 1,000 companies producing amber jewelry in the Gdansk region. It is particularly important to remember that every amber product produced in Poland is unique.

 

琥珀协会鉴定实验室Laboratorium Bursztynu - certyfikacja wyrobów z bursztynem

 

国际琥珀协会 International Amber Association

 

波兰格但斯克琥珀街 Amber street in Gdansk, Poland

 

8
早在公元前两干多年前,地中海商人就来到波罗的海地区购买琥珀,开辟了“琥珀之路”。在与古丝绸之路交汇后,波兰琥珀被运往中国,中国的茶叶和丝绸也沿着这条古老的商路来到波兰。在中国,琥珀是佛教中的七宝之一,琥珀制成的佛珠更受偏爱。
As early as over 2,000 BC, Mediterranean merchants came to the Baltic Sea region to buy amber and opened up the "Amber Road". After converging with the ancient Silk Road, Polish amber was shipped to China, and Chinese tea and silk also came to Poland along this ancient trade route. In China, amber is one of the seven treasures of Buddhism, and Buddhist beads made of amber are more favoured.

9
截至2010年末,波兰有4处琥珀矿,储量达1,118吨,全国潜在储量可能超过70万吨。全球最大的琥珀矿藏位于卢布林,储量高达25.6万吨,距地面大约12米。在卢布林省,除即将开发的最大的帕尔切夫琥珀矿外,卢巴尔图夫地下还隐藏着世界上最大的优质琥珀矿从未开挖,令人震惊!
By the end of 2010, there were 4 amber mines in Poland with reserves of 1,118 tons. The country's potential reserves could exceed 700,000 tons. The world's largest amber deposit is located in Lublin, with reserves of up to 256,000 tons, some 12 meters under the ground. In Lublin province, in addition to the largest Parczew amber mine to be developed, hidden under Lubartów there is the largest high-quality amber mine in the world that has never been excavated. So astounding!

 



10
根据国际琥珀协会,波罗的海琥珀分为三类。
According to the International Amber Association, Baltic amber gemstones can be classified into three categories.
1)天然波罗的海琥珀(琥珀石) – 仅经过机械处理(如研磨、切割、车削或抛光),其天然特性没有任何改变。
Natural Baltic amber (Succinite) – gemstone which has undergone mechanical treatment only (for instance: grinding, cutting, turning or polishing) without any change to its natural properties.

 

来自国际琥珀协会 From the International Amber Association

 

2)优化的波罗的海琥珀(琥珀石) – 仅经过热处理或高压处理,改变了其物理特性,包括透明度和颜色。
Modified Baltic amber (Succinite) – gemstone subjected only to thermal or high-pressure treatment, which changed its physical properties, including the degree of transparency and colour.

 

来自国际琥珀协会 From the International Amber Association

 

3)再生(压制)波罗的海琥珀(琥珀石) – 由一块波罗的海琥珀石或很多琥珀石碎块在高温高压下压制而成,无其他添加成分。
Reconstructed (pressed) Baltic amber (Succinite) – gemstone made of one Baltic amber stone or many pieces pressed in high temperature and under high pressure without additional components.

 

来自国际琥珀协会 From the International Amber Association

 

4)粘合波罗的海琥珀(琥珀石)(双色、三色) - 由两个或多个天然、优化或压制的波罗的海琥珀粘合而成,使用尽可能少的粘合剂将其连接在一起。
Bonded Baltic amber (Succinite) (doublet, triplet) – gemstone consisting of two or more parts of natural, modified or reconstructed Baltic amber bonded together with the use of the smallest possible amount of a binding agent necessary to join the pieces.

 

来自国际琥珀协会 From the International Amber Association

 

注:优化琥珀、压制琥珀和粘合琥珀仍是真琥珀,特别是烤色优化琥珀与天然琥珀无异甚至更受欢迎;
压制琥珀系19世纪由奥地利发明,虽然其原料仍是天然琥珀,却失去了琥珀的天然纹理,其价值则远不及天然琥珀。
粘合琥珀也被称作三层石或者双层石,最底部的非常薄的一层是有火彩的,大大提高美观度,如果由天然琥珀粘合而成,粘合剂也未超标,也属于一种比较普遍的优化琥珀。
Note: Modified amber, pressed amber, and bonded amber are still real amber, especially modified amber with baked color is as good as or even more popular than natural amber ;
pressed amber was invented in Austria in the 19th century, although its raw material is still natural amber, but it loses the natural texture of amber, and is far less valuable than natural amber.
Bonded amber is also called three-layered stone or double-layered stone. The very thin layer at the bottom is fire colored, which greatly enhances the aesthetic appeal. If it is made of natural amber and the adhesive used is not beyond the limit, it is also a relatively common modified amber.

 

优化琥珀 Modified amber

 

11
一件琥珀饰品,是根据琥珀原石的质地、尺寸、形状和颜色,通过设计、研磨、切割、抛光、镶嵌、雕刻等数道工艺制成的。
A piece of amber ornament is made by several processes including design, grinding, cutting, polishing, inlaying, carving, etc.according to the texture, size, shape and color of the raw amber stone

 

 

12
有一种雕刻是阴雕,或称沉雕,主要是在金珀或优化琥珀的背面或底部雕刻形成凹陷,然后上色,从正面可以看到立体感强的雕刻,使琥珀更具艺术感。
One type of carving is Yin (shade) carving, or Chen (sink) carving, essentially involves carving on the back or bottom of gold amber or modified amber to form a depression, then colored, so that from the front the carving can be seen in three dimensions, giving the amber a more artistic feeling.

 

 

13
中国人将透明的琥珀石称为琥珀;将半透明内有美丽花纹的称为花珀被称为“花之君子”;将不透明的称为蜜蜡;
把玩已久的蜜蜡则称为老蜜;颜色呈现沉重黄色的老蜜被称为鸡油黄,很受玩家追捧;黄色及金黄色透明毫无杂质的称为金珀(在中国自古看作是“财石”);棕红或深红色透明的称为血珀;深紫完全不透明的称为瑿珀(在中国自古便极为珍贵);
白色似白骨的称为骨珀;金珀与蜜蜡浑然一体的称为金绞蜜(半珀半蜜);深棕、黄褐或黑褐色似木头、或深棕、黄褐、黑褐、浅黄、白色、灰色等组合一起呈现类似大理石花纹的,则称为根珀。最有价值的是虫珀和植物珀。
The Chinese call transparent amber gemstone amber; the translucent amber stone with beautiful patterns inside is called flower amber known as “gentleman of flowers"; the opaque one is called beeswax;
the long-played beeswax is called old beeswax; the old beeswax with a heavy yellow color is called Jiyouhuang (chicken-oil yellow), which is highly sought after by players; the yellow or gold yellow transparent with no impurities is called Jipo (gold amber) (known as "wealth stone" since ancient times in China); brown red or dark red transparent ones are called Xuepo (blood amber); the dark purple ones completely opaque are called Yipo (pterygium amber) (very precious in China since ancient times);
the bone-color white ones are called bone amber; gold amber integrated with beeswax is called Jinjiaomi (gold amber entangled with beeswax) ( half amber and beeswax); dark brown, yellowish brown or black brown like wood, or combinations of dark brown, yellowish brown, dark brown, light yellow, white, gray and others similar to marble pattern are called Genbo (root amber). The most valuable are insect amber and plant amber.

 

蜜蜡 Beeswax

 

鸡油黄 Jiyouhuang (chicken-oil yellow amber)

来自波兰斯武普斯克琥珀博物馆 From Słupsk Amber Museum of Poland

 

 鸡油黄 Jiyouhuang (chicken-oil yellow amber) 

 

瑿珀 Yipo (pterygium amber)

 

花珀 Flower amber

 

金珀 Gold amber

 

骨珀 bone amber

 

此外中国的玩家们还有所谓金包蜜、净水金珀、火珀、绿珀、明珀、血茶珀、红茶珀、黄茶珀、柳青珀、棕红珀、紫红珀、白蜜、白花蜜(白花蜡)、金花珀,红花珀,金红珀、黄白花珀等各种说法,举不胜举。
In addition, Chinese players also have so-called names such as Jinbaomi (beeswax packed with gold), Jinshuijinpo (pure-water gold amber), Huopo (fire amber), Lvpo (green amber), Mingpo (bright amber), Xuechapo (blood tea amber), Hongchapo (black tea amber), Huangchapo (tea-yellow amber), Liuqingpo (willow-green amber), Zonghongpo (brown red amber), Zihongpo (purple-red amber), Baimi (white beeswax), Baihuami or Baihuala (white flower amber), Jinhuapo (gold-flower amber), Honghuapo (safflower amber), Jinhongpo (golden-red amber), Huangbaihua (yellow and white flower amber), etc., which are numerous.

 

以上图片为金绞蜜 The above pictures are Jinjiaomi (gold amber entangled with beeswax) 

 

立陶宛白花蜜 Lithuania baihuami white flower amber

 

血珀 Xuepo (blood amber)

 

14
多数中国人钟情的琥珀制品主要是项链、水滴状吊坠、手链或手镯 (及手排)、圆珠(佛珠)和桶珠手串(欧洲更多是算盘珠)。
The most popular amber products in China are necklaces, water-drop-shaped pendants, wrist chains or bracelets (and wrist rows), round beads (Buddha beads) and barrel-shaped-bead wrist strings (but more abacus beads in Europe).

15
最为珍贵的琥珀当属虫珀,杨老师对虫珀绝对是情有独钟!我们想象一下吧。5,000万年甚至更久远的生气勃勃、可爱的小动物和植物栩栩如生地展现在我们面前,翅膀、胳膊和腿依然清晰可见,心中该是怎样的激动和感动!他们曾经是完整的原生昆虫或树叶,却能跨过遥远的时空与我们见面,哪怕是小小的蚊子或蚂蚁,这该是多么地弥足珍贵!
The most precious amber is insect amber. JYang has a soft spot for insect amber absolutely! Imagine that. The vibrant, cute little animals and plants of 50 million years or more ago come to life just before our eyes. The wings, arms and legs are still clearly visible. How excited and moved should we be in our hearts! They were once intact native insects or leaves, but they can meet us across so long time and space, even if they tiny small mosquitoes or ants. How precious this should be!

在历史上,很多显赫家族收藏的珍宝中含有苍蝇、蚂蚁和蜘蛛的标本都是倍受珍视的,更何况是虫珀!
In history, specimens with inclusions of flies, ants and spiders were highly prized among the treasures of many eminent families, let alone insect amber!

 

虫珀的价值 Values of insect amber

 

以上图片均来自国际琥珀协会

The above pictures are all from the International Amber Association

 

16
关于镶嵌琥珀。波兰的金银镶嵌也是举世闻名的,也是最珍贵的琥珀的重要特征,镶嵌装饰一点儿也不亚于琥珀本身,同时也是对脆弱的琥珀必要的保护,真是完美的艺术结合。因此杨老师更推崇波兰的镶银(镶金)琥珀。
About inlaid amber. Polish gold and silver inlays are also world-famous and an important feature of the most precious amber, and the inlay is no less decorative than the amber itself. It is also a necessary protection for the fragile amber. It is a perfect artistic combination. This is why JYang is a great admirer of Polish silver (gold) inlaid amber.

 

 

17
波兰的玻璃艺术制品也非常精致。不要忘记,欧洲可是水晶玻璃(人造水晶)的发源地和主产地。因此杨老师也很推崇波兰的琥珀水晶玻璃制品,也是精美的艺术结合哦!
Polish glass artistic products are also very sophisticated. Remember that Europe is the birthplace and a major producer of crystal glass (artificial crystal). This is why JYang also highly praises Polish amber and crystal glass products, which are also exquisite combination of art!

 

 

18
琥珀画,包括琥珀沙画和琥珀马赛克,曾作为皇室贵族之物,体现了琥珀宝石的灵气和神秘。一幅琥珀画需要的色彩可能多达数百种,使用的基本都是天然琥珀,甚至还要将大料切成碎料,最后拼接而成,美轮美奂。
Amber paintings, including amber sand paintings and amber mosaics, were once used as objects of royalty, embodying the aura and mystery of amber gemstones. An amber painting may require as many as hundreds of colors, using essentially natural amber, and even large pieces cut into pieces, and finally glued together to create a very beautiful painting.

 

 

俄罗斯琥珀画 Rusian amber painting

 

俄罗斯琥珀画 Rusian amber painting

 

俄罗斯琥珀画 Rusian amber painting

 

俄罗斯琥珀画 Rusian amber painting

 

19
最常见的琥珀仿制品以柯巴树脂为主,也可能是马丽散(化学名称聚亚胺胶脂)或人造树脂及合成树脂(如号称“古董老蜜蜡”的贸易珠、松香),以及塑料(如电木,化学名称酚醛塑料)、玻璃、压克力等。
尤其是柯巴树脂,或称柯巴脂,也是几种树的树脂,其颜色、硬度与琥珀十分相似,最难区分。
The most common amber imitations are mainly of copal resin, and also may be marisan (chemically known as polyimide resin) or artificial resins and synthetic resins (such as trade beads so-called “antique old beeswax”, and rosin), as well as plastics (such as Bakelite, chemically known as phenolic plastic), glass and acrylic, etc.
In particular, copal resin, or copal, which is also the resin of several kinds of trees, is very similar in colour and hardness to amber, and is most difficult to distinguish.

琥珀主要产自波罗的海地区,而柯巴世界各地都有。琥珀距今至少2,000万年以上,柯巴树脂则年轻得多。多米尼加柯巴树脂距今1,500万年到1,700万年,属于柯巴树脂的元老,最接近琥珀宝石。
Amber is mainly produced in the Baltic area, whereas copal is found all over the world. Amber is at least 20 million years old, while copal resin is much younger. Dominican copal resin, which is between 15 and 17 million years old, is the oldest copal resin and is closest to amber gemstones.

 

以上均为柯巴树脂 The above are all copal

 

哥伦比亚柯巴脂 Columbian copal

 

马丽散 marisan

 

柯巴鸡油黄 Copal chicken oil yellow

 

柯巴树脂 Copal

 

17世纪德国生产的合成树脂贸易珠 Trade beads produced in Germany in 17th century

 

贸易珠 Trade beads

 

电木 Bakelite

 

塑料 plastics 

 

这个琥珀手串的10粒中有一粒为柯巴树脂 One of the 10 pieces of this amber bracelet is copal resin 

 

20
专业琥珀检测是在实验室进行的。专业琥珀检测一般分为两步:第一步确定真假,即区分真琥珀还是仿制品如塑料、树脂等;第二步确定是否经过人工处理如压制、充填、覆膜、粘合等。
常用专业琥珀检测分析仪器有红外光谱仪、偏光仪、分光镜、折射仪、滤色镜、显微镜、紫外荧光灯等。
Professional amber testing is carried out in a laboratory, in two steps. The first step is to determine whether the amber is genuine or an imitation, such as plastic or resin, and the second step is to determine whether it has been artificially treated, such as pressed, filled, laminated or bonded.
Commonly used instruments for professional amber testing and analysis include infrared spectrometers, polarizers, spectroscopes, refractometers, colour filters, microscopes, UV fluorescent lamps, etc.

 

琥珀的鉴定 Amber identification

 

21
目前珠宝市场假货充斥,因此了解必要的琥珀检测知识非常重要。民间流传的鉴定方法五花八门。根据杨老师的经验,个人检测应该包含两个步骤。
The jewellery market is currently awash with fakes, so it is important to know the necessary knowledge to test amber. There are various methods of identification circulating among the public. In JYang's experience, personal testing should involve two steps.

  1. 区别塑料、玻璃、压克力为主要原料的仿制品,主要的方法有:

A 盐水。蜜蜡密度在1.05-1.10之间,放在清水中会下沉,但放在1:4饱和盐水中则会漂浮在水面,而塑料、玻璃、压克力等会下沉。
B 手感。蜜蜡夏天冬天始终感觉很温和,不会太热太凉。
C 紫光。琥珀受到波長360-365nm紫外线照射表面会显现淡绿或蓝、白等荧光。琥珀越透明越明显,塑料、玻璃等不会变色。
D 声音。琥珀碰撞声比较柔和,塑料等的声音比较清脆。
E 静电:琥珀在干衣服上摩擦后可以吸附小碎纸屑,但不能吸附复印纸屑。
F 气味。摩擦琥珀表面后可以闻到淡淡的松香味,当然你的鼻子需要足够灵敏。
(注:以上方法不适用于树脂和压制琥珀的检测)
1) The main methods for distinguishing imitations made from plastic, glass and acrylic as the main raw material are:
A Salt water. Beeswax with density between 1.05-1.10 will sink when placed in water, but will float on the surface when placed in 1:4 saturated salt water, while plastic, glass and acrylic will sink.
B Hand feeling. Beeswax always feels mild both in summer and winter, not too hot or too cold.
C Violet light. Amber exposed to 360-365nm UV light will show fluorescence of light green or blue or white on the surface. The clearer the amber, the more visible it is; plastic, glass, etc. will not change colour.
D Sound. Amber has a softer crashing sound, while plastic etc. has a crisper sound.
E Static electricity: amber can attract small scraps of paper when rubbed on dry clothes, but not photocopy paper.
F Odour. When rubbing amber surfaces you can smell a faint pine scent, but your nose needs to be sensitive enough.
(Note: the above methods are not applicable to resin and pressed amber)

 

 

  1. 区别以柯巴树脂、马丽散、人造树脂及合成树脂等为主要原料的仿制品,主要的方法有:

 The main methods of distinguishing imitations made from copal resin, marisan, artificial resin and synthetic resin are:

A 划痕。琥珀硬度是2.5左右,和指甲差不多,柯巴的硬度是1-2。用指甲划琥珀是不会留有划痕的,划柯巴树脂则会留有划痕。
B 热烫。柯巴的熔点是150摄氏度,琥珀是200-380摄氏度。用烧红的细针刺扎,如果感觉比较坚硬的是琥珀,如果感觉比较粘软、受热发粘拔丝的是树脂;也可以将手温热后去抚摸,树脂会有一点儿粘的感觉,琥珀没有。
C 溶解。在表面滴一点儿有机溶剂(乙醇、乙醚或酒精),约30秒钟后,柯巴树脂会受腐蚀而慢慢溶解变得模糊,琥珀不会,因为琥珀已经石化;
D 刀刻。刀刻琥珀时感觉稍硬,会成粉末状,柯巴脂(以及塑料,玻璃则刻不动)会有点儿粘刀而且打卷一块块剥离;
E鳞片。琥珀中的鳞片从不同角度看感觉会不同,假琥珀中的鳞片和花纹多为注入,看上去死板。
A Scratching. The hardness of amber is around 2.5, similar to that of fingernails, whereas the hardness of copal is 1-2. Scratching amber with a fingernail will not leave a scratch, while scratching copal resin will leave a scratch.
B. Heat. The melting point of copal is 150°C, that of amber being 200-380°C. When you prick it with a red-hot needle, if it feels hard, it is amber; if it feels sticky and soft, it is resin; you can also warm your hand and touch it, resin will feel a little sticky, amber will not.
C Dissolved. A drop of organic solvent (ethanol, or alcohol) on the surface for about 30 seconds will slowly dissolve and blur the copal resin as it erodes; amber will not, as it is petrified.
D Knife carving. Amber feels slightly hard when carved with a knife and becomes powdery, while copal resin (as well as plastic, but not glass too hard to be carved) sticks to the knife a little and peels off in rolled pieces.
E Scales. The scales in amber will look different when viewed from different angles; in fake amber, the scales and patterns are injected and look rigid.

  1. 区别压制琥珀,主要的方法有:

A 气泡。天然琥珀中的气泡一般为圆形,压制琥珀中的气泡多为长扁形;
B 强光。强光灯下天然琥珀的纹理是云絮状的流淌纹,压制琥珀则是生硬的带丝或旋涡纹理,呈现的是生硬的碎块搅动状态,被称为血丝或萝卜丝。
天然琥珀的云纹是几千万年前松脂流动的痕迹,柔和自然,而且每一款都是独特的。块压的压制琥珀则有明显的块与块的生硬截面,粉压的压制琥珀则没有云纹。
3) The main methods to distinguish pressed amber are:
A bubbles. The bubbles in natural amber are generally round, while those in pressed amber tend to be long and flat.
B Intense light. Natural amber has a cloud-like, wispy, flowing texture under strong light, whereas pressed amber has a blunt, filigree or swirling texture, presenting a churning of blunt fragments, called bloodshot or turnip filaments.
The cloud-like texture of natural amber is soft and natural, and is the trace of the flowing of turpentine tens of millions of years ago, and each one is unique. Block pressed amber, on the other hand, has a distinct cross-section between blocks, while powder pressed amber has no cloud pattern.

 

天然琥珀 Natural amber

 

假琥珀 Fake amber

 

4)区别粘合琥珀(包括贴皮,即琥珀原皮为粘合上去的),主要的方法是:
放大、强光及紫光:放大或置于强光或长波紫外线下,可见粘合处的粘合痕迹,其荧光不一致,颜色界限清晰无过渡,如果粘和不紧密还可见残留空气造成的斑驳状以及残留的浑圆状气泡,有时甚至还可见粘合剂的弱蓝色荧光。
The main methods to distinguish between bonded amber (including veneers, i.e. the original amber skin is bonded on) are:
Magnification, strong light and violet light: magnification or exposure to strong light or long-wave ultraviolet light reveals traces of bonding at the bonding point, with inconsistent fluorescence, clear color boundaries with no transitions, and if the bonding is not tight, mottled residual air and residual rounded bubbles can also be visible, and sometimes even weak blue fluorescence from the adhesive can be seen.

 

强光 Strong light

 

紫光 violet light

 

贴皮 bonded skin

 

22
保养琥珀最好的方法是佩戴,经过佩戴还可以体察到琥珀的灵性。琥珀怕高温,易碎,太干燥容易产生裂纹,要避免接触酒精、汽油等。如需要清洁,可以在中性清洁剂的温水中浸泡,然后轻轻擦干,可在其表面涂少量橄榄油。
The best way to maintain amber is to wear it, and through wearing it you can also experience the amber spirituality. Amber should be away from high temperature. It is fragile, and if it is in too dry situation it is prone to cracking. Avoid contact with alcohol, petrol, etc. If it needs cleaning, it can be soaked in warm water with a neutral detergent and then gently make it dry. A small amount of olive oil can be applied to its surface.

23
关于琥珀酸About Succinic acid
琥珀酸被认为是琥珀的精髓。波兰产的波罗的海琥珀中琥珀酸的含量高达3% - 8%。
Succinic acid is considered to be the essence of amber. Baltic amber from Poland contains up to 3% - 8% succinic acid.

最早提到琥珀药用性质的是医药之父希波克拉底(公元前460~公元前377)。
人们很早就发现这种神奇矿物的某些治疗特性。当戴在脖子上时,它可以防止甲状腺疾病和偏头痛。用一块琥珀进行摩擦可以有效地消除疲劳,并减轻关节炎和风湿性疼痛。人们建议戴上琥珀手链以防止很多其他疾病。没有其他矿物能引起像琥珀这样的兴趣。
It is Hippocrates, the father of medicine (460 - 377 BC), who first mentioned the medicinal properties of amber.
Early people discovered some healing properties of this miraculous mineral. It protects from thyroid illnesses and migraine when it is worn on the neck. Rubbing with a piece of amber effectively removes tiredness and also provides some relief from arthritic and rheumatic pain. It is advisable to wear a bracelet made of amber to protect from many others illness. No other mineral has aroused such an interest as amber.

琥珀酸在医药上有抗痉挛、祛痰、利尿、抗菌,抑制皮肤过敏、抗风湿痛、抗惊厥、镇静、镇痛、抗溃疡、止血、解毒、降温、提高免疫力等功能,并可用来合成抗生素及维生素A、维生素B等。
Succinic acid is used in medicine for its anti-spasmodic, expectorant, diuretic, antibacterial, skin allergy inhibiting, anti-rheumatic pain, anticonvulsant, sedative, analgesic, anti-ulcer, haemostatic, detoxification, hypothermic and immunity enhancement functions, and can also be used to synthesize antibiotics and vitamins A and B.

 

 

24
杨老师向大家介绍一个波兰流行的琥珀酊剂制作与使用秘方。
JYang now introduces a popular Polish recipe for the preparation and use of amber tinctures.

琥珀酊
将纯净酒精倒入瓶中,时间不限 -- 在第一次使用前至少10天。琥珀在酒精中不会溶解,仅释放出呈琥珀金色的微颗粒,
用途:肺炎、流感、心脏病、哮喘、风湿病、全身无力、肌肉疼痛、脊椎病;
用法
内服:每天一次,每次2-3滴,加入茶水中。
外用:用浸湿的棉球擦拭患处。
注意:同一种琥珀仅可使用两次。
Amber tincture
Pour the pure spirit into the bottle for an unlimited period of time - minimum 10 days before the first use. The amber in the spirit does not dissolve, but only gives off microscopic particles that color it with an amber-golden color.
Application: pneumonia, flu, cardiac ailments, asthma, rheumatism, general weakening of the body, muscle and spondylosis pain.
Usage
Internal: 2-3 drops once a day, added to tea.
External: rub the sore spot with a soaked cotton swab.
Notice: the same amber can be used only twice!

 

 

25
琥珀不在晶莹剔透,有虫则珍贵。
Be beautifully wrought carved is not of importance; amber is valuable treasure with insects in it.

琥珀不在晶莹剔透,有历史则珍贵。
Be beautifully wrought carved is not of importance; amber is valuable treasure with long history in it.

琥珀不在晶莹剔透,工艺精则珍贵。
Be beautifully wrought carved is not of importance; amber is valuable treasure with its craftwork.

最后,请大家欣赏杨老师爱不释手的部分琥珀。
Finally, please enjoy some of the compulsive amber products JYang loves best.

 

 1)珍品 Treasures


这个琥珀不过是一只镶嵌金边的烟嘴。不过你知道吗,在这个世界上,可能只有两个如此珍稀的琥珀烟嘴,而且还能与当初的烟嘴盒一同保存了下来,两者均完好无损。这样价值连城的稀世珍宝,一件保存在格但斯克琥珀博物馆(曾以高价从海外购回)作为该博物馆的镇馆之宝,而另一件现在则完好保存在杨老师手中。
This amber is just a gold rimmed cigarette holder. Do you know, however,  that in this world, there may be only two such rare and precious amber cigarette holders, and they were saved together with their cases, both intact. About such invaluable treasures, one is kept in the Museum of World Amber Association in Gdansk (once purchased back to Poland at high price from abroad) as the best treasure of the museum, while the other one, now,  is well kept in the hands of JYang.

 

2) 虫珀 Insect amber

 

 3)琥珀饰品 Amber jewellery

 

 4)琥珀画 Amber painting

 

                                     

 

杨老师有个温馨建议

课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                                 

 JYang has a warm suggestion

What do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 


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