“数九天”和24节气

       “Nine-day Periods" and 24 Solar Terms

                     

 

你听说过“数九天”吗?数九天,也叫“数九寒天”,共9个9天。开始进入数九天就是进入一年中最寒冷的时候,直到春暖花开。
今年2022年的数九天是从2021.12.21即“冬至”开始的,即一九。


Have you ever heard of “Nine-day Periods Following Winter Solstice" ? Nine-day periods, also known as "cold nine-day periods", is a total of 9 nine days. Starting of nine-day periods is the beginning of coldest time of the year, until flowers bloom in Spring.
The nine-day periods in 2022 this year begin on December 21, 2021, the "Winter Solstice", which is the first nine-day period.

 

                                                  

 

冬至是中国农历二十四节气中的一个,早在两千七百多年前中国人就知道“冬至”这个节气了。在北半球冬至这天,是一年中白天最短黑夜最长的一天。


The Winter Solstice is one of the 24 solar terms in the Chinese lunar calendar. Chinese people knew "Winter Solstice" as early as more than 2,700 years ago. The Winter Solstice in the northern hemisphere is the day with the shortest daytime and the longest nighttime of the year.

 

                      

 

人们常说“三九天”最冷。其实有的地方“二九”是最冷的,也有的地方“四九”是最冷的。

在中国北方地区,有个家喻户晓的“数九歌”:
In the north of China, there is a well-known "Song of Nine-day Periods":

一(yī)九(jiǔ)二(èr)九(jiǔ)不(bù)出(chū)手(shǒu);


三(sān)九(jiǔ)四(sì)九(jiǔ)冰(bīnɡ)上(shànɡ)走(zǒu);


五(wǔ)九(jiǔ)六(liù)九(jiǔ)沿(yán)河(hé)看(kàn)柳(liǔ);


七(qī)九(jiǔ)河(hé)开(kāi),八(bā)九(jiǔ)雁(yàn)来(lái);


九(jiǔ)九(jiǔ)加(jiā)一(yī)九(jiǔ),耕(ɡēnɡ)牛(niú)遍(biàn)地(dì)走(zǒu)。


In the first and second nine-day periods people do not make a move;
In the third and forth nine-day periods people walk on the ice;
In the fifth and sixth nine-day periods people enjoy willows along the river;
In the seventh nine-day period rivers thaw, and in the eighth nine-day period swallows come back;
In the 9th nine-day period and one more nine days, cattle plough in the fields.

 

Song of Nine-day Periods

 

然后到来的节气是“立春”,即春天真的来了,寒冷的冬天终于过去啦。今年的立春是2022年2月4日。不是有这样一句诗吗:“冬天来了,春天还会远吗?


Then comes the solar term“the Beginning of Spring”on Feb.4, 2022. which means spring really comes, and cold winter has gone. Isn’t there such a poem:”When winter comes, can spring be far behind”?

 

      二(èr)十(shí)四(sì)节(jié)气(qì) 24 solar terms
立(lì)春(chūn) the Beginning of Spring (Feb.3,4, or 5)
雨(yǔ)水(shuǐ) Rain Water (Feb.18,19 or 20)
惊(jīnɡ)蛰(zhé) the Waking of Insects (Mar.5,6, or 7)
春(chūn)分(fēn) the Spring Equinox (Mar.20,21 or 22)
清(qīnɡ)明(mínɡ) Pure Brightness (Apr.4,5 or 6)
谷(ɡǔ)雨(yǔ) Grain Rain (Apr.19,20 or 21)
立(lì)夏(xià) the Beginning of Summer (May 5,6 or 7)
小(xiǎo)满(mǎn) Lesser Fullness of Grain (May 20,21 or 22)
芒(mánɡ)种(zhǒnɡ) Grain in Beard (Jun.5,6 or 7)
夏(xià)至(zhì) the Summer Solstice (Jun.21 or 22)
小(xiǎo)暑(shǔ) Lesser Heat (Jul.6,7 or 8)
大(dà)暑(shǔ) Greater Heat (Jul.22,23 or 24)
立(lì)秋(qiū) the Beginning of Autumn (Aug.7,8 or 9)
处(chù)暑(shǔ) the End of Heat (Aug.22,23 or 24)
白(bái)露(lù) White Dew (Sep.7,8 or 9)
秋(qiū)分(fēn) the Autumn Equinox (Sep.22,23 or 24)
寒(hán)露(lù) Cold Dew (Oct.8 or 9)
霜(shuānɡ)降(jiànɡ) Frost's Descent (Oct.23 or 24)
立(lì)冬(dōnɡ) the Beginning of Winter (Nov.7 or 8)
小(xiǎo)雪(xuě) Lesser Snow (Nov.22 or 23)
大(dà)雪(xuě) Greater Snow (Dec.6,7 or 8)
冬(dōnɡ)至(zhì) the Winter Solstice (Dec.21,22 or 23)
小(xiǎo)寒(hán) Lesser Cold (Jan.5,6 or 7)
大(dà)寒(hán) Greater Cold (Jan.20 or 21)

 

                                

 

      二十四节气歌Song of 24 solar terms
春(chūn)雨(yǔ)惊(jīnɡ)春(chūn)清(qīnɡ)谷(ɡǔ)天(tiān),
夏(xià)满(mǎn)芒(mánɡ)夏(xià)暑(shǔ)相(xiānɡ)连(lián);
秋(qiū)处(chù)露(lù)秋(qiū)寒(hán)霜(shuānɡ)降(jiànɡ),
冬(dōnɡ)雪(xuě)雪(xuě)冬(dōnɡ)大(dà)小(xiǎo)寒(hán)。
上(shànɡ)半(bàn)年(nián)来(lái)6,21,
下(xià)半(bàn)年(nián)是(shì)8,23。

 

                              

 

顺便说,今年的”立春“是在2月4日,而中国传统的新年”春节“则正是在”立春“的前3天即2月1日。1月31日是除夕,人们在这一天辞旧迎新。
Btw, "the Beginning of Spring" this year is on February 4, and the traditional Chinese New Year ”Spring Festival” is exactly 3 days before "the Beginning of Spring" on February 1. January 31 is New Year's Eve, and people say goodbye to the old year and welcome the new year on this day.

 

词语学习 Words to learn

除(chú)夕(xī) Lunar New Year's Eve
春(chūn)节(jié) the Spring Festival
正(zhènɡ)月(yuè)初(chū)一(yì) the lunar New Year's Day
元(yuán)宵(xiāo)节(jié)(灯(dēnɡ)节(jié)) the Lantern Festival
拜(bài)年(nián)  pay a New Year's call
春(chūn)联(lián)Spring Festival couplets
春(chūn)节(jié)联(lián)欢(huān)晚(wǎn)会(huì) Spring Festival gala
烟(yān)花(huā) fireworks
鞭(biān)炮(pào) firecrackers
虎(hǔ)年(nián) the Year of the Tiger
本(běn)命(mìnɡ)年(nián) the animal year in which one was born

最后,杨老师还想说,一年有四季,即春夏秋冬,春天是一年的开始。所以一月January不应该是一年的第一个月,三月March才应该是一年的开始,二月February则应该是一年中最后一个月。一月January怎么成为一年开始的呢?
Finally, JYang would like to say that there are four seasons in a year, namely, spring, summer, autumn and winter, and spring is the beginning of the year. Therefore January should not be the first month of the year, March should be the beginning of the year, and February should be the last month of the year. Then what caused January to be the start of the year?

说来话长啦。一月January本来是一年倒数第二个月即第11个月,以凯撒大帝命名,凯撒大帝不高兴啊,以我命名的月怎么能是第11个月呢,所以霸道的凯撒大帝便将1月January改为一年的开始,而且还增加了一天成为31天,由此其后的February也随之变成第二个月啦。January增加的一天也从February减去。后来的奥古斯都大帝也如法炮制,将以其命名的August也增加一天,同时也从February减去一天,所以February就只有28天啦。至于为什么从February减,那是因为人们都不喜欢February,毕竟它是一年的末尾,最冷,也是死刑犯人被执行的日子。
This is a long story. January was originally the penultimate month of the year, the 11th month, named after Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar was not happy. How could the month named after me be the 11th month? So the overbearing Julius Julius changed January to be the beginning of the year, with one day added to make it 31 days, thus the month February followed also became the second month. The day added to January was also subtracted from February. Later Augustus the Great did the same, adding one day to the month August named after him, and subtracting one day from February, so February had only 28 days. The reason why 
days were taken from February is that people didn't like February. After all, it's the end of the year, the coldest days, and the days when those sentenced to death would be executed.

杨老师喜欢说笑话。根据杨老师上面的说明,三月March才是一年的开始,那么哪天应该是一个星期的开始呢?有人说星期一啊,也有人说星期日啊,日历都是这么说的嘛!可是如果杨老师说,一个星期的第一天应该是星期四,我相信你们一定会问,为什么呀?杨老师只告诉你,原因只是一句经典的话:“...... when the clay began to breathe on the morning of Thursday.”


JYang likes to tell jokes. According to my explanation above, March is the beginning of a year; then on what day should a week begin? Some people say Monday, and some people say Sunday. That's what the calendars tell us! But if I say the first day of the week should be Thursday, I am sure you would definitely ask “why”? I am only telling you that the reason is only a classic saying: "...... when the clay began to breathe on the morning of Thursday."

 

杨老师注 Note by JYang:这里的clay泥胎指的是亚当。The clay here refers to Adam.)

 

杨老师有个温馨建议

课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                                

  JYang has a warm suggestion

What do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 

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