中国名城(一) 古都

                      Famous Chinese cities (I) Ancient capitals

 

 

大家好!上次,我们在“你知道这些中国地名及其翻译吗?”聊了一些原有翻译保持不变的中国历史性地名。


Hello everyone! Last time in“Do you know these Chinese place names? ”, we talked about some historical Chinese place names whose original translations remain unchanged.

下面我们继续聊聊中国的名城,看看有你们听说过哪些名城,你们去过哪些名城,你们在哪些名城学习生活过,你们还希望游览哪些名城,你们最喜欢哪些名城。


Next we will continue our talk about the famous cities in China, and see which ones you have heard of, which ones you have been to, which ones you ever studied and lived in, which ones do you want to visit, and which ones do you like best.

中国有5,000多年的历史,有20多个朝代,60多个王国(诸侯国),中国的古都以及历史文化名城真是数不胜数。


With a history of over 5,000 years, and more than 20 dynasties and more than 60 kingdoms(states), China has countless ancient capitals and famous historical and cultural cities indeed.

我们将分3次谈论中国名城:
We will talk about the famous cities of China in 3 parts:

1 《中国名城一 古都 Famous Chinese cities I Ancient capitals》(14个)
2 《中国名城二 历史文化名城 Famous Chinese cities (II) Historical and cultural cities》(67个)
3 《中国名城三 更多名城 Famous Chinese cities (III) More famous cities》(23个)

好,我们今天就来聊聊《中国名城一 古都》。
Well, today let’s talk about “Famous Chinese cities (I) Ancient cities”.

一 中国著名古代都城
 Famous ancient capital cities in China

 


1 北京Beijing

 

 


北京是国家历史文化名城,是五个朝代的古都(辽、金、元、明、清),有3,000多年历史。北京在隋朝(公元581年—618年)叫做北平,在元朝叫做元大都,在明朝叫做北平(公元1368年),意思是”希望北方平安“。1937年日军占领北平后改叫北京,1945年仍叫北平。1949年改称北京至今。


Beijing is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital of five dynasties (Liao, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing), with a history of more than 3,000 years. Beijing was called Beiping in the Sui Dynasty (581-618A.D.), Yuandadu in the Yuan Dynasty, and Beiping (1368A.D.) in the Ming Dynasty, meaning "hope for peace in the north". During the Japanese occupation of Beiping in 1937, it was renamed Beijing, and in 1945 it was still called Beiping. It was renamed Beijing since 1949.

 

2 洛阳 Luoyang

 

 

 

龙门石窟 Longmen Grottoes

 

龙门石窟 Longmen Grottoes


洛阳是国家历史文化名城,是13个朝代和20多个政权的古都,是华夏文明和河洛文化的发源地,是夏王朝(公元前2070年-前1600年)最早的都城。城市历史长达4,000多年,作为都城的历史至少1,650年。


Luoyang is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital of 13 dynasties and more than 20 regimes, the birthplace of Chinese civilization and Heluo culture, and the earliest capital of the Xia Dynasty (2070 BC-1600 BC). The city has a history of more than 4,000 years, and it has a history of at least 1,650 years as a capital.

 

3 西安 Xi’an

 

 

 

大雁塔 the Dayan Pagoda


西安是国家历史文化名城,是13个朝代的古都,与意大利的罗马、希腊的雅典和埃及的开罗并称为“世界四大古都”,最早是西周(约公元前1046年-前771年)的都城,并曾作为历史上最强盛的秦、汉、西晋、隋、唐等朝代的都城。


Xi'an is a national historical and cultural city. It is an ancient capital city of 13 dynasties, known as the "Four Ancient Capitals of the World" along with Rome in Italy, Athens in Greece, and Cairo in Egypt. It was once the capital of most powerful Qin, Han, Western Jin, Sui, and Tang dynasties in history.

 

4 开封 Kaifeng

 

 

6层古城 the 6-layer ancient cities

 

6层古城示意图 

Schematic diagram of the 6-layer ancient cities


开封是国家历史文化名城,是8个朝代的古都,建城历史长达4,100余年,早在夏朝(公元前2070年-公元前1600年)就是一国的都城。
开封城下还发掘出土了6层相叠的6座被掩埋的古开封城,即魏国大梁城(公元前339年共作为都城140余年)、唐朝汴州城、北宋东京城(作为都城168年)、金国汴京城、明朝开封城和清朝开封城,相当于开封城实际上是7层叠加的7座开封城,其中有3座是3大王朝的古都城。这6层6座古城是在2,000多年里被黄河数次淹没造成的。
开封的上下7层的古城池竟然还是“城摞城”、“墙摞墙”和很多的“路摞路”、“门摞门”、“马道摞马道”,即上下古城的城、墙、路等上下在同一位置相对应。
著名的《清明上河图》记录的即是开封作为北宋都城时的城市面貌和当年的繁华。


Kaifeng is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital city of 8 dynasties, with a history of more than 4,100 years. It was the capital city of a state as early as the Xia Dynasty (2070 BC-1600 BC). Under the city of Kaifeng, six buried ancient Kaifeng cities in six layers were unearthed, namely Daliang City of the Wei Kingdom (as the capital for more than 140 years since 339 BC), Bianzhou City of Tang Dynasty, and Dongjing City of Northern Song Dynasty (as the capital for 168 Years), Bianjing City of Jin Kingdom, Kaifeng City of Ming Dynasty, and Kaifeng City of Qing Dynasty, which means 7 Kaifeng cities superimposed in 7 layers, one on another, of which 3 are ancient capitals of 3 dynasties. The six ancient cities in six layers were caused by the Yellow River flooding several times in more than 2,000 years. The 7-layer ancient cities in Kaifeng are still "city on city", "wall on wall" and many "road on road", "gate on gate", "horse road on horse road", that is, the upper and lower cities, walls, and roads correspond in the same position.
The famous "Along the River During the Qingming Festival" records the city appearance and prosperity of Kaifeng when it was the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty.

 

5 咸阳 Xianyang

 

 


咸阳是国家级历史文化名城,是中国首个封建王朝秦帝国的都城(公元前350年),周、汉、唐等11个朝代曾把咸阳做为都城,号称天下第一帝都,文物景点多达4,951处。


Xianyang is a national historical and cultural city, and capital of the Qin Empire, the first feudal dynasty in China (350 B.C.). 11 dynasties, including the Zhou, Han and Tang dynasties, once made Xianyang their capital, and it is known as the first imperial capital of the world, with as many as 4,951 cultural heritage sites.

 

6 安阳 Anyang

 

殷墟旧址 the Yin Ruins

 

中国文字博物馆 Chinese Character Museum


安阳是国家历史文化名城,是7个朝代的古都,最早为殷商(约公元前1300年-公元前1046年)的都城。安阳的殷墟是中国最早的都城遗址,由于在殷墟出土的甲骨文,安阳也被称为中国文字之都。


Anyang is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital of seven dynasties, the earliest of which was the capital of Yin Shang (circa 1300 BC-1046 BC). The Yin Ruins in Anyang is the earliest capital site in China. Anyang is also known as the capital of Chinese characters, thanks to the oracle bone inscriptions unearthed at the ruins.

 

7 南京 Nanjing

 

 

中山陵 Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum


南京是国家历史文化名城,古称金陵(公元前333年),是6个朝代的古都,最早为东吴都城(公元229年),1368年明朝在此建都,改称南京至今。1928-1949作为中华民国首都。南京与波兰克拉科夫是友好城市。 


Nanjing is a national historical and cultural city, known as Jinling in ancient times (333 B.C.) , and was capital of six dynasties, first as the capital of the Eastern Wu Dynasty (229 A.D.) and then as the capital of the Ming Dynasty in 1368, when it was renamed Nanjing. In 1928-1949 it was the capital of the Republic of China. Nanjing and Krakow, Poland are sister cities. 

 

8 商丘 Shangqiu

 

 


商丘是国家历史文化名城,是6个朝代的古都,也是最早的商朝都城,上古颛顼(公元前2342-公元前2245年)在商丘建立都城。


Shangqiu is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital of six dynasties and the capital of the earliest Shang dynasty, where the ancient Zhuan Xu (2342 BC-2245 BC) established his capital.

 

9 郑州 Zhengzhou

 

 

 


郑州是国家历史文化名城,是5个朝代的古都,最早作为都城是在夏朝(公元前2070年-前1600年),是中华人文始祖轩辕黄帝的故里。郑州与波兰格利维策是友好城市。


Zhengzhou is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital of five dynasties, first as the capital of Xia Dynasty (2070 BC-1600 BC). It is the hometown of Xuan Yuan Huangdi, the founder of Chinese civilization. Zhengzhou and Gliwice, Poland are sister cities.

 

10 荆州Jingzhou

 


荆州是国家历史文化名城,是6个朝代的古都,荆州的建城历史长达3,000多年。公元前689年楚国在此建都,其后有34个帝王在此建都。


Jingzhou is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital of six dynasties, with a history of more than 3,000 years. In 689 B.C., Chu dynasty established its capital here, followed by 34 emperors since.

 

11 大同 Datong

 

 

云岗石窟 Yungang Grottoes


大同是国家历史文化名城,是3个朝代的古都,曾是北魏(386年-534年)、辽、金的都城。大同云冈石窟是世界文化遗产。


Datong is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital of three dynasties, namely Northern Wei (386-534), Liao and Jin. Datong Yungang Grottoes is a World Heritage Site.

 

12 杭州 Hangzhou

 

 

西湖 Western Lake


杭州是国家历史文化名城,是2个朝代的古都,曾是吴越(907-978)、南宋的都城,誉为“人间天堂”。杭州与波兰克拉科夫是友好城市。


Hangzhou is a national historical and cultural city, and ancient capital of two dynasties, once as the capital city of Wuyue (907-978) and the Southern Song Dynasty, known as the "paradise on earth". Hangzhou and Krakow, Poland are sister cities.

 

13 曲阜 Qufu

 

 


曲阜是国家历史文化名城,曾是鲁国(公元前1043年—公元前255年)的国都,曲阜是孔子的故乡和儒家文化的发源地。


Qufu is a national historical and cultural city, once as the capital of Lu State (1043 BC-255 BC). Qufu is the hometown of Confucius and the birthplace of Confucian culture.

 

14 成都 Chengdu

 

 

春熙路 Chunxi Road

 

都江堰 Dujiang Weirs


成都是国家历史文化名城,是古代蜀国文明的发祥地,有3,000多年历史,蜀汉、成汉、前蜀、后蜀等政权先后在此建都。成都与波兰华沙、罗兹、格但斯克是友好城市。


Chengdu is a national historical and cultural city, and the birthplace of ancient Shu civilization, with a history of more than 3,000 years. Regimes such as Shuhan, Chenghan, Former Shu, Later Shu etc. once established their capitals here. Chengdu is the sister city with Warszawa, Lodz, and Gdansk in Poland.

 

 

你听说过这些名城吗?你去过这些名城吗?你在这些名城学习生活过吗?你喜欢这些名城吗?

Have you ever heard of these famous cities? Have you ever been to these cities? Have you ever studied and lived in these cities? Do you like these cities? 

好,我们今天就聊到这儿。我们下次继续聊《中国名城二 历史文化名城》

Well, that's all for today’s talk. Next we will continue our talk about “Famous Chinese cities (II) Historical and cultural cities”.

 

                                    


杨老师有个温馨建议


课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                         

JYang has a warm suggestion

What do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 


学习汉语的课堂;了解中国的窗口

A Classroom for Chinese Learning;

A Window for Knowing China