你知道这些中国地名及其翻译吗?

                    Do you know these Chinese place names?

 

                           

 

中国 China

大家好!我们今天聊一聊中国的地名及其翻译,下次我们继续聊聊中国的国家历史文化名城。

Hello everyone! Today let's talk about Chinese place names and their translations, and next time we will continue our talk about the famous national historical and cultural cities of China.


1976 年联合国教科文组织通过关于中国人名地名拼写的决议,此后中国的名称要按照汉语拼音进行拼读,不再使用“威妥玛式注音法”。由此,

In 1976, the Unesco adopted the Resolution on the spelling of Chinese personal names and geographical names, and since then Chinese names should be spelt in accordance with Chinese pinyin, instead of the "Thomas F.Wade Pronunciation". thus, 

北京 Peking --Beijing

南京 Nanking --Nanjing

广州 Kwangchow(旧名old Canton) --Guangzhou

天津 Tientsin --Tianjin

成都  Chengtu --Chengdu

杭州 Hangchou --Hangzhou

青岛 Tsingtao --Qingdao

厦门 Amoy --Xiamen

西安 Sian --Xi’an

福州 Foochow --Fuzhou

桂林 Kweilin --Guilin

珠海 Chuhai --Zhuhai 

 

不过,有些历史性的名称仍然保持不变,沿用原有翻译。

However, some historical names remain unchanged, following the original translations.

 

                                  

 

长城 the Great Wall


1 中国 China(中国人仍是 Chinese) 

China (and Chinese also remains unchanged)


”中国“两字最早出现在西周(约公元前1100-公元前771年)的青铜器上,上面记录的是武王占领了当时的”中国“即商朝(约公元前1600年—公元前1046年)。那时商朝是个位于各诸侯国的中心的国家。汉代后在中原建立的王朝都自称为”中国”,即在中心的国。

The term "中国zhōngguó" first appeared on bronze artifacts in the Western Zhou Dynasty (approximately 1100 BC-771 BC), which recorded the occupation by King Wu of what was known as “中国zhōngguó" of that time, that is, the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 BC-1046 BC). At that time, the Shang Dynasty was a state located at the center of the vassal states. All the dynasties established in the Central Plains after the Han Dynasty called themselves “中国zhōngguó", meaning the state in the center.


1912年中华民国成立,简称中国(中华),此时”中国“才是现代完整中国的名称。

In 1912, the Republic of China was founded, referred to as "China (zhonghua)". Since this time "China" became the name of entire China in modern time. 

 China一词最早出现在 1555 年,很多人误以为源于中国古代特产瓷器china(porcelain),其实正相反,应该是瓷器一词源于中国一词。

The term China first appeared in 1555. Many people mistakenly believed that it came from the ancient Chinese specialty “china” (porcelain). But actually the opposite is true. The word china(porcelain) originated from the term ”China“.

China一词应该来源于梵文Cina,最早见于公元前4世纪的古印度梵文经典著作《摩诃婆罗多》、《罗摩衍那》和《摩奴法典》,然后衍生出各种拼法,如英语 China, 法语Chine,意大利语Cina,德语China,葡萄牙语China,匈牙利语Kína,荷兰语China,丹麦语Kina,世界语Ĉinio,波兰语Chiny,古拉丁语Sinae,晚期拉丁语Sinology,等等。

The term China should be derived from Sanskrit Cina, first found in ancient Indian Sanskrit classics "Mahābhārata", "Rāmāyaṇa" and "Manusmṛti" in the 4th century BC, and then various spellings were derived, such as China in English, Chine in French, Cina in Italian, China in German, China in Portuguese, Kína in Hungarian, China in Dutch, Kina in Danish, Ĉinio in Esperanto, Chiny in Polish, Sinae in Ancient Latin, Sinology in Late Latin, etc. 

梵文Cina的来源无法考证,一个可能是秦国Chin,公元前4世纪以前秦国与古印度已经交往频繁;但更可能的是丝绸,1958曾出土公元前3700-前3100年的丝绸织品,而公元前十世纪左右的古代中国已与古印度有贸易来往。

There is no way to verify the origin of Cina in Sanskrit. One possibility may be Chin, the state of Qin, which had frequent interactions with ancient India before the 4th century B.C., but more likely is silk. Silk fabrics from 3700-3100 B.C. were unearthed in 1958, and ancient China already had traded with ancient India around the 10th century B.C.

 

                              

珠穆朗玛峰 Mount Qomolangma


2 西藏 xizàng Tibet西藏自治区 

Tibet Autonomous Region is Bod rang skyong ljongs in Tibetan.

(藏文 Tibetan: Bod rang skyong ljongs) 

西藏一词来自藏文bod-ljong。7世纪西藏的吐蕃王朝自称 bod,即藏文”吐蕃“。欧洲称西藏为吐蕃特,突厥语和蒙古语称藏族为”土伯特“、“卫藏”,均来自藏族的自称 bod”吐蕃”。“卫藏”中的“卫”字在藏中恰与满文中的wargi(西方的)读音相近,于是“卫藏”在满文中译为“wargi Dzang”,即“西方的藏”。现在“西藏”的满文正是wargi ts’ang,汉语则根据满文译成“西藏”沿用至今。

The word 西藏xīzàng comes from the Tibetan bod-ljong. In the 7th century, the Tubo dynasty in Tibet called itself bod, which means "Tubo" in Tibetan. In Europe Tibet was called Tubote, and in Turkic and Mongolian languages it was called "Tubo" and "Weizang", both of which came from bod "Tubo" which the Tibetans called themselves. The pronunciation of the word "Wei" in "Weizang" in Tibet is similar to that of wargi (meaning western) in Manchu, so "Weizang" is translated into "wargi Dzang" in Manchu, which means "Western Dzang". Now the Manchu word for "Tibet" is just wargi ts’ang, and in Chinese it was translated into "西藏xīzàng" according to Manchu, which is still in use today. 

至于英语Tibet一词,源自Bod并由阿拉伯人传到世界各地,于是便有了Tibetum, Thibetum, Thobbat, Tubet 和Tibet。

As for the word Tibet in English, it originated from Bod and was spread to all over the world by Arabs, thus giving rise to Tibetum, Thibetum, Thobbat, Tubet and Tibet. 

西藏一些地区的地名也沿用原翻译,如

The names of some places in Tibet also follow the original translation, such as

拉lā萨sà Lhasa

日rì喀kā则zé Shigatse(Shigatze)

那nà曲qǔ Nagqu

阿ā里lǐ Agari。 

西藏景点也沿用原有翻译,例如

Tibetan scenic spots also use the original translation, such as

布bù达dá拉lā宫ɡōnɡ Potala Palace

大dà昭zhāo寺sì Jokhang Temple

哲zhé蚌bènɡ寺sì Drepung Monastery

甘ɡān丹dān寺sì Ganden Monastery

色sè拉lā寺sì Sera Monastery

罗luó布bù林lín卡kǎ园yuán林lín Nor-bu gling-ka Monastery。


拉萨 lāsà,西藏自治区首府

Lhasa, Capita of Tibet Autonomous Region 

雪域高原的国际旅游城市,国家历史文化名城,历史悠久,吐蕃tǔ bō王朝古都(公元618年—842年),由于独特的宗教色彩闻名于世。

An international tourist city on the snow-covered plateau, famous Chinese national historical and cultural city with a long history, the ancient capital of the Tubo Dynasty (618-842 AD), famous for its unique religious background.

 

                                     

成吉思汗陵 Mausoleum of Genghis Khan


3 内蒙古 nèiménggǔ Inner Mongolia内蒙古自治区 

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region


Mongolia是英文的“蒙古”,因此内蒙古一词按照英语译成Inner Mongolia。

Mongolia is the English name, so内蒙古nèiménggǔ is translated into Inner Mongolia in English. 

不过,最近内蒙古人的护照上使用 Nei Mongol 取代了原先的Inner Mongolia。Nei是汉语拼音,而Mongol仍然是英文,意思是“蒙古人、蒙古“,由蒙语中的 mong (我们的)和 gol  (火)组成,体现了蒙古民族的特点。Nei

Mongol, however, has recently been used in Inner Mongolian passports instead of Inner Mongolia. Nei is Chinese pinyin, while Mongol is still in English, meaning "Mongolian, Mongolia", which is composed of mong (our) and gol (fire) in Mongolian, suggesting the characteristics of the Mongolian nationality.

内蒙一些地区的地名也沿用原翻译,如

The names of some places in Inner Mongolia also follow the original tanslation, such as 

呼hū和hé浩hào特tè Hohhot

鄂è尔ěr多duō斯sīOrdos

呼hū伦lún贝bèi尔ěrHulunbuir

乌wū兰lán浩hào特tèUlan Hot

海hǎi拉lā尔ěrHailar

和hé林lín格ɡé尔ěrHoringer

准zhǔn格ɡé尔ěrJungar

杭hánɡ锦jǐnHanggin

土tǔ默mò特tèTumd

苏sū尼ní特tèSonid

科kē尔ěr沁qìnKe’erqin

鄂è伦lún春chūnOroqen

额é尔ěr古ɡǔ纳nàErgun 

 

呼和浩特,内蒙古自治区首府

Hohhot, Capital of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region


呼和浩特 hūhéhàotè,来自蒙古语Kökeqota,意为“青色的城”,是国家历史文化名城。明朝始建归化城,清朝改称绥远,1913年改称归绥,1954年改称呼和浩特。

From Mongolian Kökeqota, meaning "blue city", it is a famous Chinese national historical and cultural city. The city of 归化Guīhuà was built in the Ming Dynasty, and the name was changed to 绥远suíyuǎn in the Qing Dynasty. In 1913, it was renamed as 归绥guīsuí. In 1954, it was renamed as Hohhot.

 

              

新疆 Xinjiang


4 新疆 xīnjiāng Xinjiang  新疆维吾尔自治区

 Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region


新疆古称西域,直至清朝时期(公元1736~1796年)改称新疆。

Xinjiang was called the Western Territory  in ancient times, until the Qing Dynasty (1736~1796 AD) when is was renamed Xinjiang. 

Uygur或Uyghur, Uighur来自于突厥语。维吾尔族属于突厥族,古称回鹘,又称回纥、回回、回族、畏兀儿,1935年开始称为维吾尔并沿用至今,意思是”维护你我团结“。

Uygur or Uyghur, Uighur came from Turkic language. The Uyghurs belong to the Turkic ethnic group. They were called 回鹘huíhú in ancient times, also known as 回纥huígē, 回回Huihui, Hui Nationality, and 畏兀儿wèiwùer. They began to be called Uyghurs since 1935 and are still in use up to now, meaning "maintain unity between you and me." 

新疆一些地区的地名也沿用原翻译,如

The names of some places in Xinjing also follow the original translation, such as

 喀kā什shén Kashgar

吐tǔ鲁lǔ番fān Turpan

克kè拉lā玛mǎ依yī Karamay

格ɡé尔ěr木mù Golumd

和hé田tián Hotan

阿ā克kè苏sū Aksu, 

 

✸乌鲁木齐,新疆维吾尔自治区首府

Urumqi, Capital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 

乌鲁木齐 wūlǔmùqí, 原名迪化,1954年改为乌鲁木齐,源于维吾尔语Ürümchi或Ürümqi,意思是“优美的牧场”。

Urumqi, formerly known as Tihwa, was renamed as Urumqi in 1954, derived from the language of Ürümchi or Ürümqi, which means "beautiful pasture".

 ( 中国其余两个自治区使用汉语拼音:

Note the other two Autonomous Regions are named with Chinese pinyin: 宁nínɡ夏xià回huí族zú自zì治zhì区qūNingxia Hui Autonomous Region广ɡuǎnɡ西xī壮zhuànɡ族zú自zì治zhì区qūGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

 

                                   

香港 Hong Kong


5 香港 xiānggǎng Hong Kong


Hongkong一词最早指香江。当年英国人从香江入海口登陆香港岛,便用香江命名所登录的香港岛,沿用至今,而香港的别称仍为香江。

The term Hongkong originally referred to Hong Kong River (Xiangjiang River). When the British landed on Hong Kong Island from the mouth of the Hong Kong River, they named the Hong Kong Island after the name of the Hong Kong River, still in use today, and the nickname of Hong Kong is still Hong Kong River.

 

                       

澳门 Macao


6 澳门 Àomén Macao


Macao一词源自当地的妈祖庙“妈阁”。1553年葡萄牙人从妈祖庙附近登陆,便以此命名该地,译为葡萄牙语Macau,英语为Macao沿用至今。

The term Macao came from the local Matsu temple "Mage". In 1553, the Portuguese landed near the Matsu Temple and named the place after it, which was then translated into Portuguese as Macau, and English as Macao, still in use today.

 

                                          

日月潭 Sun Moon Lake


7 台湾(臺灣,台灣)táiwān Taiwan


台湾一词来自于台窝湾社(Tayouan或Taiouwang),荷兰人将其写成Teyoan、Taioan、Teyouvan、Tayouan、Taiyouan、Taiyouhan,闽南人据此翻译为“大员(Tāi-uân)”、“大苑(Tāi-uán)”、“台员(Tâi-uân)”、“大湾(Tāi-uân)”和“台窝湾(Tâi-o-uân)”,最后定为“台湾(Tâi-uân)”,注音符号为ㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ,拼音为táiwān(Taiwan)。

The term Taiwan came from Tayouan or Taiouwang, then the Dutch wrote it as Teyoan, Taioan, Teyouvan, Tayouan, Taiyouan and Taiyouhan, and then Minnan people translated them into Tāi-uân, Tāi-uánm, Tâi-uân, Tāi-uân and Tâi-o-uân, and finally the term was determined as Tâi-uân, ㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ in phonetic notation and táiwān (Taiwan) in pronunciation. 

台湾一些地区的地名也沿用原翻译,如

The names of some places in Taiwan also follow the original translation, such as 

台tái北běi Taipei

新xīn竹zhú Hsinchu

宜yí兰lán Yilan(Ilan)

台tái中zhōnɡ Taichung

台tái东dōnɡ Taitung

基jī隆lónɡ Keelung

高ɡāo雄xiónɡ Kaohsiung

金jīn门mén Kinmen

嘉jiā义yì Chiayi(Chia-I)

新xīn北běi New Taipei

屏pínɡ东dōnɡ Pingtung

花huā莲lián Hualien

连lián江jiānɡ Lienchiang

彰zhānɡ化huà Changhua。

 

台北 táiběi Taipei

台北一词最早出现于1875年清朝所建立的台北府,1884年始建台北城。Taipei一词源于台语(即台湾闽南语、台湾话)Tâi-pak,客家话为Thòi-pet,清朝时译为Taipeh,二次大战后按照台湾的国语发音拼写为Taipei沿用至今。

The term "Taipei" first appeared in the term Taipei prefecture established by the Qing Dynasty in 1875, and Taipei City was founded in 1884. The word Taipei was derived from Taiwanese (i.e. Minnan Taiwanese, or Taiwanese) Tâi-pak, Thòi-pet in Hakka, which was translated as Taipeh in the Qing Dynasty. After World War II, it was spelled as Taipei according to Taiwan’s Mandarin pronunciation, still in use today.

 

                        

哈尔滨 Harbin


8 哈尔滨 hā'ěrbīn Harbin


Harbin来自满语Halbin,古称上京。公元1115年金朝在哈尔滨建立最早的都城,是金、清两代王朝的发祥地。

Harbin came from the Manchu language Halbin, called Shangjing in ancient times. In 1115 AD, the Jin Dynasty established its earliest capital in Harbin and it was the birthplace of the Jin and Qing dynasties.

 

               

香格里拉 Shangri-la


9 香格里拉 xiānggélǐlā Shangri-la


原名中甸县(藏语拼音:Gyaitang Zong,藏语意为“心中的日月”) ,位于云南省西北部的青藏高原横断山区深处,是世界自然遗产“三江并流”景区所在地。

Formerly known as Zhongdian County (Tibetan Pinyin: Gyaitang Zong, meaning "sun and moon in the heart" in Tibetan), located deep in the Hengduan Mountains of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the northwest of Yunnan Province, is the site of the World Natural Heritage "Three Parallel Rivers" scenic spot.

 

 好了,我们今天暂时聊到这里,我们下次继续聊一聊中国的著名古都和历史文化名城。

Well, Let’s end our talk for today, and next time we will continue our talk about famous ancient capital cities and famous historical and cultural cities of China.

 

                                           

 

杨老师有个温馨建议


课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                                  

JYang has a warm suggestion

What do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 


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