游故宫探秘中南海(上)

              Visit Forbidden City and mysterious Zhongnanhai I

杨老师想弱弱地问同学们:你们去过北京故宫吗?你们走进过中南海吗?现在,让我们随杨老师一起走进中国最神秘的地方:紫禁城和中南海。北京紫禁城,现在称为故宫,曾是中国历史上的权力中心,明清两个朝代有24个皇帝都在这里居住,统治中国长达500来年。中南海,则是中国中央政府的所在地,而且历代党和国家领导人都住在这里,说是中国的心脏一点不为过,领导着中国走过了七十多年的发展路程。 

JYang wants to ask you casually: Have you ever been to the Forbidden City in Beijing? Have you ever been inside Zhongnanhai?Now, please follow JYang to pay a visit to the most mysterious places in China: the Forbidden City and Zhongnanhai.The Forbidden City in Beijing, now called Palace Museum, was once the center of power in Chinese history, where during the Ming and Qing dynasties 24 emperors lived and ruled China for as long as about 500 years.Zhongnanhai, on the other hand, is the seat of central government of China, and all the Party and state leaders have lived here. It is not too much to say that Zhongnanhai is the heart of China, leading China through more than 70 years of development.

天安门广场 Tian An Men Square


词语学习 Words to learn


神(shén)秘(mì)的(de) mysterious


故(ɡù)宫(ɡōnɡ)(博(bó)物(wù)院(yuàn)) Palace Museum/Forbidden City (imperial palace)


紫(zǐ)禁(jìn)城(chénɡ) Forbidden City


中(zhōnɡ)南(nán)海(hǎi) Zhongnanhai (Middle and South Lakes)


天(tiān)安(ān)门(mén) Tian An Men (Gate of Heavenly Peace)


天(tiān)安(ān)门(mén)广(ɡuǎnɡ)场(chǎnɡ) Tian An Men Square


午(wǔ)门(mén) Meridian Gate


太(tài)和(hé)殿(diàn) Hall of Supreme Harmony


中(zhōnɡ)和(hé)殿(diàn) Hall of Central Harmony


保(bǎo)和(hé)殿(diàn) Hall of Preserving Harmony


乾(qián)清(qīnɡ)宫(ɡōnɡ) Palace of Heavenly


宁(nínɡ)寿(shòu)宫(ɡōnɡ) Palace of Peace and Longevity


坤(kūn)宁(nínɡ)宫(ɡōnɡ) Palace of Earthly Tranquility


御(yù)花(huā)园(yuán) Imperial Garden


权(quán)力(lì) power


朝(cháo)代(dài)(王(wánɡ)朝(cháo)) dynasty


皇(huánɡ)帝(dì) emperor


统(tǒnɡ)治(zhì) rule


政(zhènɡ)府(fǔ) govenment


领(lǐnɡ)导(dǎo)人(rén) leader


宏(hónɡ)伟(wěi) magnificent/grand


建(jiàn)筑(zhù) building/architecture


博(bó)物(wù)馆(ɡuǎn)(博(bó)物(wù)院(yuàn)) museum


宫(ɡōnɡ)殿(diàn) palace


别(bié)具(jù)特(tè)色(sè) distinctive/unique


大(dà)帝(dì) great emperor on heaven


天(tiān)子(zǐ) emperor (son of emperor on heaven/son of God)


辉(huī)煌(huánɡ) brilliant/splendour


琉(liú)璃(lí)瓦(wǎ) glazed (roof) tiles


典(diǎn)礼(lǐ) ceremony/ritual/celebration


象(xiànɡ)征(zhēnɡ) symbol/symbolize


珍(zhēn)贵(ɡuì) precious


文(wén)物(wù) cultural relics


绘(huì)画(huà) painting


陶(táo)瓷(cí) ceramics


珐(fà)琅(lánɡ) enamel


雕(diāo)塑(sù) sculpture


青(qīnɡ)铜(tónɡ)器(qì) bronze ware


玉(yù)(石(shí)) jade


首(shǒu)饰(shì) jewelry (for ornament)


织(zhī)锦(jǐn) brocade


家(jiā)具(jù) furniture


宫(ɡōnɡ)廷(tínɡ) court/palace


宗(zōnɡ)教(jiào) religion


器(qì)具(jù) appliances/apparatus

 

故宫 Forbidden City


故宫 Forbidden City

 


故宫 Forbidden City Map

 

故宫博物院 Palace Museum

 

故宫博物院 Palace Museum

 

紫禁城附属建筑

 

紫禁城建筑材料及运输路线示意

 

一.故宫 Forbidden City

今天,我们先到宏伟的故宫看看。天安门广场的北面是天安门,穿过天安门城楼,就可以看到故宫的入口-午门了。

北京故宫是世界上最大的宫殿建筑群,也是世界上五大著名博物馆之一。

故宫位于北京城中心,始建于1406年,南北长961米,东西宽753米,四周是约10米高的城墙,城墙外是宽约52米的护城河。故宫内有宫殿2,631座,据1973年统计共计8,704个房间。紫禁城有四座城门,南面为午门,北面为神武门,东面为东华门,西面为西华门。城墙的四角各有一座别具特色的角楼。 

Today let's visit the grand Forbidden City first.To the north of Tian An Men Square is Tian An Men, and after Tian An Men we can see the entrance to the Forbidden City: Meridian Gate.

Beijing Palace Museum is the largest palace complex in the world and one of the five most famous museums in the world.

Located in the center of Beijing, the Palace Museum was built in 1406. It is 961 meters long from north to south, 753 meters wide from east to west, and surrounded by a 10-meter-high city wall, and outside the city wall is a 52-meters-wide moat. There are 2,631 palaces in the Forbidden City, with a total of 8,704 rooms according to statistics in 1973.The Forbidden City has four gates: the Meridian Gate on the south, the Shenwu Gate on the north, the Donghua Gate on the east, and the Xihua Gate on the west. There is a distinctive corner tower on each corner of the city wall.

 

紫禁城外朝图解

 

内廷建筑布局图解

 

午门

 

午门和太和门示意图

 

故宫


北京故宫之所以叫做紫禁城,据说是天上的大帝住在紫宫里,而人间的皇帝号称“天子”,所以“天子”的居所也用紫字命名为紫禁城。整个紫禁城建筑群都是以黄瓦、红墙、金饰、白石构成的,看起来辉煌无比。其中黄色琉璃瓦是天子的象征,黄色也为皇帝所独占。 

The Forbidden City in Beijing is called the Forbidden City, because It is said that the Emperor of Heaven lives in the Purple Palace, while the emperor of the world is known as the "Son of Heaven", therefore the residence of the "Son of Heaven" is also named the Purple Forbidden City. The entire Forbidden City complex is composed of yellow tiles, red walls, gold ornaments, and white marbles, and it looks extremely brilliant. Among them, the yellow glazed tile is the symbol of the emperor, and the yellow color is also exclusive to the emperor.

 

故宫博物院

 

金水河Gold_Water_River

 

内金水河示意图

 


紫禁城内的建筑分为外朝和内廷两部分。外朝的中心为太和殿、中和殿、保和殿,统称三大殿,是国家举行大典礼的地方。内廷的中心是乾清宫、交泰殿、坤宁宫,统称后三宫,是皇帝和皇后居住的正宫。后面是御花园。 

The buildings in the Forbidden City are divided into two parts: the outer court and the inner court. The center of the outer court is Hall of Supreme Harmony, Hall of Central Harmony and Hall of Preserving Harmony, collectively known as the three main halls, which is the place where the country held grand ceremonies. The center of the inner court is Palace of Heavenly, Jiaotai Palace and Palace of EarthlyTranquility, collectively known as the three rear palaces, which is palace where the emperors and the empresses lived. Behind them is the Royal Garden.

 

三大殿示意图

 

三大殿东西建筑群示意图

 

太和门

 

太和殿

 

 

 

中和殿

 

保和殿

 

乾清宫

 

乾清门及后三宫示意图

 

交泰殿

 

坤宁宫

 

畅音阁

 

慈宁宫

 

慈宁门

 

皇极殿

 

体仁阁

 

文渊阁

 

武英殿

 

延禧宫

 

养心殿

 

翊坤宫

 

雨花阁

 

长春宫

 

九龙壁

 

                       

                        珍妃井

 

角楼

 

御花园

 


据2017年统计,北京故宫博物院藏有1,862,690件珍贵文物,其中很多是绝无仅有的国宝。故宫珍宝包括绘画、陶瓷、珐琅、漆器、雕塑、青铜器、铭刻、金银锡器、玉石器、首饰、文房四宝、织锦、家具、钟表仪器、玻璃器皿、音乐戏曲、宫廷宗教、生活器具等 。 

According to 2017 statistics, the Beijing Palace Museum has a collection of1,862,690 precious cultural relics, many of which are rare national treasures. Treasures in the Forbidden City include paintings, ceramics, enamels, lacquerware, sculptures, bronze wares, inscriptions, gold and silver tin wares, jade, jewelry, four treasures of the study, brocade, furniture, clocks and instruments, glassware, music and opera, court religion, living utensils, etc.

 

白玉三羊执壶

 

翠卧牛

 

故宫藏品

 

奶茶壶

 

                

                 故宫珍宝

 

琥珀刻诗鼻烟壶 Amber

 

金累丝嵌珠宝塔

 

金龙形帽顶

 

金瓯永固杯

 

金珀光素扳指 Amber

 

金嵌宝石镂空花卉纹八角盒

 

金嵌珍珠宝石塔

 

金嵌珠杯盘

 

金胎画珐琅杯盘

 

金胎掐丝珐琅嵌画珐琅执壶

 

金胎錾胎珐琅嵌画珐琅执壶

 

金镶东珠菩萨立像

 

金錾花如意

 

绿松石山石花卉鼻烟壶

 

蜜蜡鼻烟壶 Amber

 

蜜蜡鹤鹿同春双孔花插 Amber

 

蜜蜡象耳活环瓶 Amber

 

掐丝珐琅鸳鸯式香熏

 

乾隆帝田黄三联玺

 

三羊尊

 

孝端皇后凤冠

 

 顺便说一下。中国有四个故宫,除北京故宫外,还有台北故宫博物院Taipei Palace Museum、南京故宫和沈阳故宫。

南京故宫曾是明朝的皇宫,旧称紫禁城,曾经是中世纪世界上规模最大的宫殿建筑群,不过后来多次受到严重毁坏。北京故宫就是仿照南京故宫建造的。

台北故宮博物院又称为台湾故宫,据2014年底统计,馆藏文物达69.6万余件,皆为稀世珍宝。

沈阳故宫坐落在中国东北的沈阳,又称盛京皇宫,是满清王朝在入关迁都北京之前的皇宫,建于1625年,有近400年历史。

By the way. There are four Forbidden Cities in China. In addition to the Palace Museum in Beijing, there are Taipei Palace Museum, Nanjing Palace Museum, and Shenyang Palace Museum.

Nanjing Palace Museum used to be the Palace Museum of the Ming Dynasty,once known as the Forbidden City. It was once the largest palace complex in the world in the Medieval Ages, but it was severely destroyed many times later. The Forbidden City in Beijing was modeled after the Forbidden City in Nanjing.

The Taipei Palace Museum, also known as the Taiwan Palace Museum, has a collection of over 696,000 cultural relics in its collection, all of which are rare treasures, according to statistics at the end of 2014.

Shenyang Palace Museum is located in Shenyang in northeast China, also known as Shengjing Imperial Palace. It was the imperial palace before the Manchu Qing Dynasty moved to Beijing by Shanhaiguan Gage. It was built in 1625 and has a history of nearly 400 years.

 

 

南京故宫遗址 Nanjing Palace Museum

 

台北故宫 Taibei Palace Museum

 

沈阳故宫 Shenyang Palace Museum


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