学下围棋喽(6)Learn to Play Go(Weiqi)(6)

                                        -- 基本技巧Basic Moves

               

 

关键词学习 Key words to learn


围(wéi)棋(qí) weiqi/Go/baduk


下(xià)围(wéi)棋(qí) play Go


交(jiāo)叉(chā)点(diǎn) intersection


棋(qí)盘(pán) board


子(zǐ)/棋(qí)子(zǐ) stone


地(dì)盘(pán) territory


吃(chī) capture


提(tí)(子(zǐ)) take captured stones off the board


活(huó)棋(qí)、死(sǐ)棋(qí)和(hé)做(zuò)活(huó) Life, death and make alive


双(shuānɡ)活(huó)(三(sān)活(huó))seki/impasse/mutual life


打(dǎ)劫(jié) ko/threat(atari else where to take here)


虎(hǔ)口(kǒu) tiger’s mouth


虎(hǔ) make a tiger’s mouth


双(shuānɡ)虎(hǔ) make double tiger’s mouths

 

                    

 

大家好。今天我们继续学习围棋的基本技巧。我们学习围棋技巧越多,围棋越是妙不可言、其乐无穷!

Hello everyone. Today let’s continue to learn Go basic moves. The more we have learned Go moves, the more fantastic and greater joy it will be!

 

3 围棋的基本技巧 Go Basic Moves

 

15)活棋死棋做活 Life, death and make alive

活棋必须有两个或两个以上的真眼。下图中都是活棋。

A move must have more than one trap. All are lives in the following diagram.

 

(Video) 死棋和活棋 life and death

(Video) 真眼和假眼 true eyes and false eyes

 

如果有了两个真眼,就是活棋。活棋是不可能被提掉的。

If there are two true eyes, it is life, and life can impossibly be taken off.

 

下图中,“×”是真眼,“a”尚不确定。

In the diagram below, “×” is a real eye while “a” is not certain yet.

 

白1使得"a"变成假眼,所有的黑子成为死棋。

White 1 makes "a" a false eye, and all the black stones become dead.

 

做活: 黑1使得两个眼成为真眼,黑棋活。

Make alive: Black 1 makes two eyes true traps, and black stones survive.

 

死棋还是活棋取决于是否有可活的关键点。下图中标有“×”的点即为关键点。

Life or death depends on whether there is killable eyes. In the following diagram intersections marked “×” are the vital points.

 

下图中有标记的白∆都是死棋。The white ∆ stones in the following diagram are all death.

 

“x”点虽不是禁着点,但下子没有意义,因为无法做活。

Though “x” points are not forbiden intersections, but there is no sense to play any stones there, because it is impossible to make them alive.

 

白方抢先下了白1,于是对于黑棋只有一个眼,不是活棋。

White preempts to play white 1, and Black has only one eye, so it is not life.

 

在下图这种情况下,黑方必须在三个空交叉点的中间放一子黑1,使其成为两个眼。

In this case in the following diagram, Black must play a stone, black1,  in the middle to make two eyes.

 

在这种情况下,黑方必须在B点放一子,使其成为两个眼。

In this case, Black must play a stone at B intersection to make two eyes.

 

下图中黑棋是假活棋。In the following diagram, black stones are all false lives.

 

 

下面的图中黑棋都是假活棋。In the following diagram, black stones are all false lives.

 

 

 

 

 

下图中的眼都是假眼。The eyes in the following diagram are false eyes.

 

黑棋还不能确定是活棋。Black stones are not sure to be life.

 

练习1:判断死棋活棋Exercise 1: Judge life or death

 

练习1答案:1活; 2 死; 3死; 4死; 5 活Answer to the exercise1: 1 life, 2 death, 3 death, 4 death, 5 life


练习2:哪个是活棋哪个是死棋?Exercise2:  Which is life and which is death?

 

16)双活 (三活) seki/impasse/mutual life

双方互相包围,每一方都无法将对手的棋子提掉。所以也叫做万年劫。

The two players enclose each other, and neither player can capture the opponent's stones, so it is also called mannen-ko (thousand-year ko).

 

 

在双活情况下每一方各有一个眼。In case of mutual life, each player has an eye.

 

 

三活 Three lives

 

双方都不能放子的交叉点叫做公气。

The intersections both players cannot play stone in are called mutual liberties.


公气、双活也叫做共活、公活。

Mutual liberties and mutual life are also called double life or public life.

 

下图中A、B是公气。

In the following diagram, A and B are mutual liberties.

 

下图中黑1、白2是公气。

In the following diagram, black 1 and white 2 are mutual liberties.

 

下图中白2、黑1是公气。

In the following diagram, white 2 and black 1 are mutual liberties.

 

下图中白1、黑2是公气。

In the following diagram, white 1 and black 2 are mutual liberties.

 

下图中黑2、白1是公气。

In the following diagram, black 2 and white 1 are mutual liberties.

 

下图中黑1、白2是公气。

In the following diagram, black 1 and white 2 are mutual liberties.

 

下图中黑2、白1是公气。

In the following diagram, black 2 and white 1 are mutual liberties.

 

练习 Exercise

哪个是双活(三活)?

Which ones are mutual life?

 

答案 Answer

2、3是三活,1、4不是双活

2 and 3 are mutual life, but 1 and 4 are not.

 

17)打劫 ko/threat(atari else where to take here)

双方可以反提的时候,被吃掉的一方必须先在其他地方下,然后才可继续提回。

After captured, the captured player must first play somewhere else and then can recapture.


在下图的顶部,黑方可以通过在 r 下棋来捕获一颗棋子。

At the top of the following diagram, Black can capture a stone by playing at r. 

 

 

这导致了下图顶部的情况。 然而,这块棋子本身很容易被下图中的白棋捕获。 如果允许白方立即在 u 处重新夺回,则将恢复到上图中的位置,并且无法阻止这种提和反提无限期地继续下去。 此图中还显示了在棋盘边缘和角落中打劫的另外两种可能的情形

This results in the situation at the top of the following diagram. However, this stone is itself vulnerable to capture by a White play at u in the following diagram. If White were allowed to recapture immediately at u, the position would revert to that in the above diagram, and there would be nothing to prevent this capture and recapture continuing indefinitely. Two other possible shapes for a ko, on the edge of the board and in the corner, are also shown in this diagram.

 

打劫的规则通过禁止劫的反提来消除这种无限重复的可能,在这种情况下,直到白棋在其他地方下过至少一次棋以后,上图中的 u 处才可以下子。 然后黑方可以在u补劫。但如果黑方选择不这样做,而是在其他地方回应白棋的打劫,则允许白棋在u重新获得劫。

The ko rule removes this possibility of indefinite repetition by forbidding the recapture of the ko, in this case a play at u in the above diagram, until White has made at least one play elsewhere. Black may then fill the ko, but if Black chooses not to do so, instead answering White's intervening turn elsewhere, White is then permitted to retake the ko at u. 

下图中,黑棋或白棋也需要在其他地方下子后才可以在A处吃掉对手。

In the following diagram, Black or White needs to make another play elsewhere and then can capture the opponent at A.

 

 

决定大片地盘甚至全盘胜负的大劫称为生死劫 tsume-ko。

The key ko that determines a large territory or even the overall outcome is called tsume-ko (life or death ko). 

 

18)虎口 tiger’s mouth

被围住三个气的一个空的交叉点,对手如果放子就会被提掉。

An empty intersection with three liberties enclosed. A stone played there by the opponent will be captured.

 

 

下图中,A、B、C、D、E、F均是虎口。

In the following figure, A, B, C, D, E and F are all tiger’s mouths.

 

19)虎 make a tigers mouth

做出虎口来保护自己的棋子。

Make a tiger’s mouth to protect the stones.


下图中,两个黑子需要得到保护:

On the figure below, the two black stones need protection.

 

 

有两个方法来保护黑子。一个方法是在A处连:

There are two ways to protect black stones. One way is to connect them at A intersection:

 

另外一个更好的方法是虎,例如黑1在A处做一个虎口:

Another better way is to make a tiger’s mouth. For example, black 1 makes a tiger’s mouth at A:

 

20)双虎 make double tigers mouths

有时一子可以做两个虎口。下图中,黑棋被包围:

Sometimes one stone can make two tiger’s mouths. On the figure below, black stones are enclosed:

 

 

黑棋无法逃跑,只能在包围圈里做活。可是A或B点只能连一个,黑棋仍然不能活:

Black stones have no way to escape, and the only way is make them alive within the enclosing circle. But black can only be connected either at A or B, still not alive.

 

下图中,黑1一次做了两个虎口,即双虎,救活了黑棋:

In the figure below, black 1 by one move makes two tiger’s mouths, namely double tiger’s mouths, and black stones survive.

 


                                       图片


本公众号已经发布的“学下围棋喽 -- 基本技巧”

“Learn to Play Go(Weiqi) --Basic Moves”already published in JYangSinology

(请点击查看 Please click and watch)


学下围棋喽(1)Learn to Play Go(Weiqi)(1)-- 过这村没这店Now or Never

学下围棋喽(2)Learn to Play Go(Weiqi)(2)-- 基本规则Basic Rules

学下围棋喽(3)Learn to Play Go(Weiqi)(3)-- 基本规则Basic Rules

学下围棋喽(4)Learn to Play Go(Weiqi)(4)-- 基本技巧Basic Moves

学下围棋喽(5)Learn to Play Go(Weiqi)(5)-- 基本技巧Basic Moves



我们的围棋学习计划如下,请密切关注不要错过哦!

Our Go learning program is as follows. Please keep following closely, not to miss it!


由于需要学习的内容很多,我们先公布基本规则、基本技巧和基本战术的目录,然后公布战略布局和收官的学习目录。

As there is a lot to learn, we will first show you the contents of basic rules, basic moves and basic tactics, and later the contents of strategic overall layout and closing.


                                                                       目录 Content


1 关于围棋 About Go


2 围棋的基本规则 Go Basic Rules

1) 游戏概念 game concept

2)围棋盘 Goban/board

3)拿子 hold and play a stone

4)气 liberty(way out/outlet)5)吃 capture

6)叫吃/打 atari(cheok/peep/threaten to take)

7)提/提子 take (stone)

8)反提 take back

9)眼 me/eye

10)禁着点 forbidden intersection

11)目 moyo/(enclosed) point

 

3 围棋的基本技巧 Go Basic Moves

1)粘/接(连) tsugi/connect

2)长 nobi/solid extend/stretch

3)尖 kosumi/diagonal move

4)跳 tobi/jump/leap

5)(小)飞 kogeima/knight’s move

小结:长,尖,跳,飞

Brief summary: nobi, kosumi, tobi, kogeina

6)拆 hiraki/extend

7)断 kiri/cut/break

8) 扳/扳断 dane/wrench/pull off

9)扭/扭断 twist off

10)冲 tsuki-dashi/push through

11)挡osae/block

12)逼 tsume/checking extension(force/drive)

13)碰(靠) tsuke/an attachment(a contact play/next to)

14)压kake/oshi/pushing move

15)活棋、死棋和做活 Life, death and make alive

16)双活seki/impasse/mutual life

17)打劫 ko/threat(atari else where to take here)

18)虎口 tiger’s mouth

19)虎 make a tiger’s mouth

20)双虎 make double tiger’s mouths

21)小飞挂角 kogeima at a corner

22)尖顶 nobi and block

23)夹 clip(block on both sides)

24)托 hold(support)

25)渡 ferry(cross)

 

4 围棋的基本战术 Go Basic Tactics

1)死亡线 Death line

2)逃跑 escape

3)断点 cutting point

4)双叫吃(双打)ryo-atari/double atari

5)门吃/关门吃 enclose and capture

6)抱吃 hug and capture

7)征子/征吃/扭羊头 shicho/ladder

8)引征 ladder breaker

9)枷吃geta/net/fence in

10)倒扑 utte-gaeshi/a snapback(plunge back)

11)接不归 connection failed

12)扑与接不归连用 uchikaki and connection failed in conjunction

13)不入气/不入子与金鸡独立 deadly liberty/lethal stone and on one foot

14)二路吃 Line 2 capture

15)对杀semeai (capture race)

16)大小判断 size judgment

17)棋筋和废子 suji/gotendon and scrapped stone

18)手筋tesuji


5 围棋的战略布局 Go Strategic Overall Layout


6 收官计数 Closing and Scoring


杨老师有个温馨建议


课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                                 

JYang has a warm suggestion

What do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 

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