世界地名汉译揭秘

                 Mysterious Chinese Translation of Toponym

 

 

大家好!上次我们聊了姓名和中国地名Geographical names的翻译,今天我们再聊聊神秘的世界地名汉语翻译,看看地名翻译背后有哪些传说和故事。你很快会发现,了解世界地名是怎样译成汉语的是多么有意思!
Hello everyone! Last time we talked about translation of person names and geographical names in China. Today we will continue our talk about mysterious Chinese translation of geographical names in the world, to see what legends and stories are behind the translations. Soon you will find how funny it is to know the way how place names of the world are translated into Chinese!

先说几句关于翻译的问题。根据翻译理论,有两种翻译方法,即直译、意译,以及音译和不译。Black is white译为“把黑的说成白的”或“颠倒黑白”是直译(译成“黑色是白色”则不是正确的翻译),而译为“颠倒是非”或“指鹿为马”是意译。
Let’s start with a few words about translation. According to the translation theory, there are two translation methods, namely literal translation and free translation (paraphrase), as well as transliteration and no translation. If“Black is white”is translated into "Call black white" or "confuse black and white", it is literal translation (but translation of "black color is white color" is not correct translation), while translation like "Confuse right and wrong" or "Call a stag a horse" is free translation.

人名地名的翻译途径主要是意译、音译和不译。New Zealand(新西兰)的New 译为”新”是意译,揭示世界上还有一个兹兰省,而音译为”纽“则掩盖了这一事实。Zealand译为”西兰“也是音译,”d”因为是轻音所以不译。
Mainly free translation, transliteration and no translation are applied in
the translation of person and place names. If New in New Zealand is translated into "新(new)", it is free translation, revealing the fact that there is another Zealand Region in the world, and this fact is concealed by the transliteration into "纽niu". Translation of Zealand into "西兰xilan" is also a transliteration, and "d" is not translated because it is a light sound.

                    

 

1 世界地名的汉译以音译为主
 Transliteration is mainly used in Chinese translation of toponyms


Poland 波兰bōlán
Kraków克拉科夫 kèlākēfū
Słubice斯武比采 sīwǔbǐcǎi
Słupsk斯武普斯克 sīwǔpǔsīkè
Ustka乌斯特卡 wūsītèkǎ
Konin 科宁kēníng
Leszno 莱什诺láishínuò
Toruń 托伦tuōlún
Chełm 海乌姆hǎiwūmǔ
Zamość 扎莫希奇zhāmòxīqí
Kazimierz Dolny 卡齐米日多尔尼kǎqímǐrìduōěrní
Kórnik 库尔尼克kùěrníkè
Gniezno 格涅兹诺génièzīnuò
Białystok 比亚韦斯托克bǐyǎwéisītuōkè
Piła 皮瓦píwǎ
Pisa 比萨bǐsà
Cancún 坎昆(康昆)kǎnkūn(kāngkūn)
Pompei 庞贝(庞培)pángbèi(pángpéi)
Moscow 莫斯科mòsīkē
Berlin 柏林bólín
Bremen 不来梅bùláiméi
Lübeck 吕贝克lǚbèikè
Köln 科隆kēlóng
Hannover 汉诺威hànnuòwēi
Norway 挪威nuówēi
Moldova 摩尔多瓦mó'ěrduōwǎ
Sarajevo 萨拉热窝sàlārèwō
Cape Town 开普敦kāipǔdūn
Snow Hill 斯诺希尔sīnuòxīěr
Times river 泰晤士河tàiwùshìhé
Budapest 布达佩斯bùdápèisī
Ukraine 乌克兰wūkèlán
Iran 伊朗yīlǎng
Iraq 伊拉克yīlākè
Syria 叙利亚xùlìyǎ
Libya 利比亚lìbǐyǎ

 

波兰 Poland

 

                            

波兰克拉科夫 Kraków, Poland

 

             

墨西哥坎昆 Cancún, Mexico

 

波兰托伦 Toruń, Poland

 

2 音译时需要避免造成误解的词语
 Avoid Words that cause misunderstanding in transliteration


Great Slave Lake 大奴湖dànúhú
(不是伟大的奴隶湖 not great slave lake)
Kentucky 肯塔基kěntǎjī
(不是肯德基 not KFC)
Rzeszów 热舒夫rèshūfū
(不是热舒服 not hot & comfortable)
Lublin 卢布林lúbùlín
(只有杨老师会理解为俄罗斯货币“卢布的森林”。Only JYang will reckon it as“forest full of Russian rubles”.)

 

                            

卢布林 Lublin

 

3 明显反映特征的名称用意译
 Paraphrase (free translation) for names that clearly reflect characteristics


Grand Canyon 大峡谷dàxiágǔ
Long Island 长岛chángdǎo
Iceland 冰岛bīngdǎo
Salt Lake City 盐湖城yánhúchéng
Helper 帮手bāngshǒu
Great Falls 大瀑布城dàpùbùchéng

4 国际上习惯意译的地名
 Place names used to be paraphrased in the world


Great Bear Lake 大(dà)熊(xiónɡ)湖(hú)
South Africa 南(nán)非(fēi)
Cambridge 剑(jiàn)桥(qiáo)
Oxford 牛(niú)津(jīn)
Saint-Louis-du-Ha! Ha! 圣(shènɡ)路(lù)易(yì)迪(dí)阿(ā)!阿(ā)!
Yellow springs (Ohio) 黄(huánɡ)泉(quán) (俄(é)亥(hài)俄(é)州(zhōu))
Yellow Springs, Pennsylvania 宾(bīn)夕(xī)法(fǎ)尼(ní)亚(yà)黄(huánɡ)泉(quán)
Yellow Springs Rd 黄(huánɡ)泉(quán)路(lù)
    注:在中国文化中黄泉是人死后去的地方,也叫做九泉或九泉之下,即所谓的阴曹地府,在九层地下河的最底部。黄泉路即人死后去往地府的那条路。
    Note: In Chinese culture,Yellow Springs is the land of the dead where people go after death, also called Nine Underground Rivers or Under the Nine Underground Rivers, the so-called Hell of the Underworld at the bottom of the 9-layer underground rivers. Yellow Springs Rd is the way to the hell after death.

 

                        

黄泉(俄亥俄) Yellow-Springs Ohio

 

                

Yellow Springs Rd (map)

 

5 部分音译部分意译
 Partially transliterated and partial freely translated


Bangladesh 孟(mènɡ)加(jiā)拉(lā)国(ɡuó)
Thailand  泰(tài)国(ɡuó)
Islamabad 伊(yī)斯(sī)兰(lán)堡(bǎo)

6 有些地名的音译需要增加意译
 Transliteration of some place names needs additional paraphrase


Sahara 撒哈拉大沙漠sǎhālādàshāmò
Greenland 格陵兰岛gélínglándǎo
Hồ Chí Minh 胡志明市húzhìmíngshì
Hải Phòng 海防市hǎifángshì

 

撒哈拉大沙漠 Sahara 

 

7 地名中的头衔一般意译
 Generally paraphrase needed for titles in Place Names


Prince Edward Island 爱(ài)德(dé)华(huá)王(wánɡ)子(zǐ)岛(dǎo)

8 具有历史意义地名意译
 Paraphrase of place names with historic significance


ul. 28 Czerwca 1956 Poznań
    波(bō)兹(zī)南(nán)1956年(nián)6月(yuè)28日(rì)大(dà)街(jiē)
Остров Октябрьской Революции
    十(shí)月(yuè)革(ɡé)命(mìnɡ)岛(dǎo)
Bezirk Karl-Marx-Stadt
    卡(kǎ)尔(ěr)·马(mǎ)克(kè)思(sī)城(chénɡ)区(qū)
General Ahmed Hassan Village
    艾(ài)哈(hā)迈(mài)德(dé)·哈(hā)桑(sānɡ)村(cūn)

9 地名中的数词或日期意译
 Free translation of numerals or dates in place names


One Hundred and Two River 一(yì)〇二(èr)河(hé)
Cuatro de Junio 六(liù)月(yuè)四(sì)日(rì)城(chénɡ)

10 地名中起修饰作用的形容词一般意译
 Generally Paraphrase needed for adjective modifiers


Great Nicobar Island 大(dà)尼(ní)科(kē)巴(bā)岛(dǎo)
Castilla la Nueva 新(xīn)卡(kǎ)斯(sī)蒂(dì)利(lì)亚(yà)
New Delhi 新(xīn)德(dé)里(lǐ)
New Orleans 新(xīn)奥(ào)尔(ěr)良(liánɡ)
New Hampshire 新(xīn)罕(hǎn)布(bù)什(shén)尔(ěr)
New Braunfels 新(xīn)布(bù)朗(lǎnɡ)费(fèi)尔(ěr)斯(sī)
New Netherland 新(xīn)尼(ní)德(dé)兰(lán)
New Orange 新(xīn)奥(ào)兰(lán)治(zhì)(New Netherland)

11 地名中起修饰作用的形容词的特殊情况
 Special cases of adjective modifiers in geographical names


New Zealand 
新(xīn)西(xī)兰(lán)(中国大陆Mainland of China)
纽(niǔ)西(xī)兰(lán)(香港台湾Hong Kong, Taiwan)
    注:新西兰原住民毛利人(公元500年至1300年)所起的名称为Aotearoa(奥特亚罗瓦),1645年殖民者侵占后改称 Nieuw Zeeland(新兹兰,Zeeland即殖民者原来国家的兹兰省),1840年英国吞并后改称 New Zealand(新西兰)。
    Note: The name named by the aboriginal Maori (500-1300 AD) was Aotearoa (奥特亚罗瓦). After invasion in 1645, by the the colonists it was renamed Nieuw Zeeland (新兹兰, which is the Zeeland Province of colonists’ own country), and it was renamed New Zealand (新西兰) after the British annexation in 1840.

New York 纽(niǔ)约(yuē)
    注:其实New是起修饰作用的形容词。New York之前的殖民地名称是法国的Nouvelle Angoulême(新昂古莱姆)、荷兰的Nieuw-Nederland(新尼德兰)及其后的New Amsterdam(新阿姆斯特丹),New均意译为”新“。1664年英国人接管后改称New York,音译为纽约,掩盖了殖民的历史背景。
    Note: In fact, the word New is a adjective modifier. The former colony names for New York were Nouvelle Angoulême (新昂古莱姆)by French, Nieuw-Nederland(新尼德兰)and then New Amsterdam (新阿姆斯特丹)by Dutch, and “New” was always paraphrased as new (新). After British took over it in 1664, it was renamed New York, transliterated as Niuyue (纽约), which concealed the historical background of colonization. The same example is New Castle (纽卡斯尔Niukasier) in the United States, and so on.

12 起修饰作用的形容词仍然音译
 Non-modifying adjectives still need transliteration


Great Island 格雷特岛géléitèdǎo
    (不是大岛 not big island)
Little River 利特尔河lìtèěrhé
     (不是小河 not small river)

13 如果有两个名称,本地名称为正名,外来名称为副名
With two names, the local one is proper name and the foreign one secondary name


Wisła
    维(wéi)斯(sī)瓦(wǎ)河(hé)(波兰语Polish)
    维(wéi)斯(sī)图(tú)拉(lā)河(hé)(英语English: Vistula River)
Dar-el-Beida 
    达(dá)尔(ěr)贝(bèi)达(dá)(摩洛哥语Moroccan)
    卡(kǎ)萨(sà)布(bù)兰(lán)卡(kǎ)(英语English: Casablanca)

14 跨国河流、山脉等分别按所在国名称译写
 Transnational rivers, mountains, etc. are translated according to the names in the country where they are


Tajo 塔(tǎ)霍(huò)河(hé)(西班牙Spain)
    特(tè)茹(rú)河(hé)(葡萄牙Portugal: Tejo
 Odra 奥(ào)得(dé)河(hé)(波兰Poland)
    奥(ào)得(dé)河(hé)(捷克Czech: Odra)
     奥(ào)得(dé)河(hé)(德国Germany: Oder)
Chomolungma(Mount Everest)
     珠(zhū)穆(mù)朗(lǎnɡ)玛(mǎ)峰(fēnɡ)(中国China: Mount Qomolangma)
     萨(sà)加(jiā)玛(mǎ)塔(tǎ)峰(fēnɡ)(尼泊尔Nepal: Sagarmāthā)
“    珠(zhū)穆(mù)朗(lǎnɡ)玛(mǎ)峰(fēnɡ)(萨(sà)加(jiā)玛(mǎ)塔(tǎ)峰(fēnɡ))”(中国和尼泊尔China and Nepal)

15 为使汉译简洁轻音也可以不译
 Light sounds can be omitted in translation for conciseness


Bydgoszcz 比得哥什bǐdégēshí
Malbork 马尔堡mǎěrbǎo
Hamburg 汉堡hànbǎo
Paris 巴黎bālí
Ireland 爱尔兰àiiěrlán
Edinburgh 爱丁堡àidīngbǎo
Denmark 丹麦dānmài
Afghanistan 阿富汗āfùhàn
Brussels 布鲁塞尔bùlǔsàiěr
Madrid 马德里mǎdélǐ
Egypt 埃及āijí
Vietnam 越南yuènán

 

                         

波兰马尔堡 Malbork, Poland

 

16 过长地名的特殊情况
 Special cases of excessively long place names


Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu 


陶(táo)马(mǎ)塔(tǎ)瓦(wǎ)坦(tǎn)吉(jí)汉(hàn)加(jiā)夸(kuā)奥(ào)奥(ào)乌(wū)塔(tǎ)塔(tǎ)图(tú)里(lǐ)普(pǔ)卡(kǎ)卡(kǎ)皮(pí)基(jī)马(mǎ)洪(hónɡ)加(jiā)霍(huò)努(nǔ)库(kù)波(bō)凯(kǎi)时(shí)努(nǔ)阿(ā)基(jī)塔(tǎ)纳(nà)塔(tǎ)胡(hú)


    注:这是最初毛利人为新西兰一座小山所起的名称,简称“陶马塔”。山虽很小(305米),其名字却是目前已知世界上最长的地名(共85个字符),大意是”湍急漩涡附近白树林山谷中的圣玛利亚教堂和红岩洞附近的圣田西路教堂“, 已列入吉尼斯世界纪录。
    Note: It is the name of Māori origin of a hill in New Zealand, Taumata for brevity. The hill is very small (305 metres), but its unusually long name is the longest one found in the world (with 85 characters), meaning St. Mary's Church in the White Grove Valley near the turbulent whirlpool and St. Tansy’s Church near the red rock cave, listed in the Guinness World Records.

 

新西兰最长的地名 The longest place name in New Zealand

 

新西兰最长的地名 The longest place name in New Zealand

 

17 连接词and可以用“-”代替
 The conjunction and can be replaced with "-"


Wade and Stinson 韦(wéi)德(dé)-斯(sī)廷(tínɡ)森(sēn)

18 有时表示所在区域的修饰短语可以不译
 Sometimes phrase modifiers indicating the region can be omitted


Frankfurt an der Oder 法兰克福fǎlánkèfú
    注:但法兰克福在地图上的全称是“奥得河畔法兰克福”。
    Note: But the full name of Frankfurt on the map is Frankfurt nad Odrą; Frankfurt (Oder).

19 只有一个汉字时可以适当加字
More proper characters to be added, In case of only one Chinese character


Leh 列(liè)城(chénɡ) (位于克什米尔located in Kashmir)
Bonn 波(bō)恩(ēn)
Philadelphia 费(fèi)城(chénɡ)(费(fèi)拉(lā)德(dé)尔(ěr)菲(fēi)亚(yà),Philly)

20 朝鲜、日本、东南亚等国的地名,原先有汉字名称的继续沿用
 The original Chinese characters of place names of North Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia and other countries remain unchanged


Pyongyang 平(pínɡ)壤(rǎnɡ)
Tokyo 东(dōnɡ)京(jīnɡ)
Hanoi 河(hé)内(nèi)
Phnom Penh 金(jīn)边(biān)
Bandung 万(wàn)隆(lónɡ)
Ambon 安(ān)汶(wèn)(位于印度尼西亚located in Indonesia)
Pegu 勃(bó)固(ɡù)(位于缅甸located in:Myanmar)

21 过于生僻的字可以修改
 Uncommon words can be modified


Bali Island 巴(bā)厘(lí)岛(dǎo)(原名original: 峇bā厘(lí)岛(dǎo))

22 地名汉译以该国官方的名称为依据
 Chinese translation of geographical names is based on the official names of the local countries


Poznań 波(bō)兹(zī)南(nán)(不再波森no longer Posen)
Gdansk 格(ɡé)但(dàn)斯(sī)克(kè)(不再但泽no longer Danzig)
Wrocław 弗(fú)罗(luó)茨(cí)瓦(wǎ)夫(fū)(不再no longer Breslau)
Szczecin 什(shén)切(qiè)青(qīnɡ)(不再no longer Stettin)
Zielona Góra 绿(lǜ)山(shān)城(chénɡ)(不再no longer Grünberg in Schlesien)
Żary 扎(zhā)雷(léi)(不再no longer Sorau)
Gorzów Wielkopolski 大(dà)波(bō)兰(lán)地(dì)区(qū)戈(ɡē)茹(rú)夫(fū)(不再no longer Landsberg an der Warthe)
Sankt-Peterburg 圣(shènɡ)彼(bǐ)得(dé)堡(bǎo)(不再彼(bǐ)得(dé)格(ɡé)勒(lè)/列(liè)宁(nínɡ)格(ɡé)勒(lè)no longer Petrograd/Leningrad)
Spain 西(xī)班(bān)牙(yá)(根据西班牙语based on Spanish: España)
Rome 罗(luó)马(mǎ)(根据意大利语based on Italian: Roma)
    注:不过,Milan(米(mǐ)兰(lán))没有根据意大利语读音Milano翻译
    Note: However, Chinese translation of Milan(米(mǐ)兰(lán))is not based on Italian word Milano.
Volgograd 伏(fú)尔(ěr)加(jiā)格(ɡé)勒(lè)(不再察(chá)里(lǐ)津(jīn)/斯(sī)大(dà)林(lín)格(ɡé)勒(lè)no longer Tsarizin/Stalingrad)
    注:不过,每年的8月23日、2月2日、5月9日、9月2日、6月22日和11月19日这六个有关纪念日该市仍称为斯大林格勒。
    Note: However, on Aug.23, Feb.2, May 9, Sept.2, June22 and Nov.19 each year the name of the city is still Stalingrad.

 

格但斯克 Gdansk

 

               

波兹南 Poznań

 

     

俄罗斯圣彼得堡 Sankt-Peterburg, Russsia

 

23 有些地名的汉译出于历史背景
 Chinese translation of some place names is based on historical background


Warszawa(Warsaw)华(huá)沙(shā)
    注:Warszawa出自传说中渔夫Wars(Warsa)和维斯瓦河里的人鱼Sawa(Sawy)相恋结婚的故事。
    Note: Warszawa comes from the story of the legendary fisherman Wars (Warsa) and the mermaid Sawa (Sawy) in the Visła River who fell in love and got married.

 

          

华沙 Warsaw


River Nile 尼(ní)罗(luó)河(hé)
    注:Nile没有译为奈尔河,与这条河在古埃及科普特语中的名称 piaro,teru,piaro 或 phiaro有关。
    Note: is not translated into “Naier River(奈尔河)”, which is due to the river names piaro, teru, piaro or phiaro in ancient Egyptian Coptic language.


Honolulu 火(huǒ)奴(nú)鲁(lǔ)鲁(lǔ)
    注:没有按照夏威夷语译为“屏蔽之湾”。此外,夏威夷出产贵重的檀香木,因此海外华人喜欢将Honolulu称之为“檀香山”。
    Note: It is not translated into "Shield Bay" (屏蔽之湾) based on Hawaiian. In addition, Hawaii produces valuable sandalwood, so overseas Chinese prefer to call Honolulu "Sandalwood Hill(檀香山)"


San Francisco 
    旧(jiù)金(jīn)山(shān)(中国大陆、台湾Mainland of China/Taiwan)
    三(sān)藩(fān)市(shì)(香港、澳门Hong Kong/Macao)
        注:最初音译为圣(shènɡ)弗(fú)兰(lán)西(xī)斯(sī)科(kē)。因为名字太长,又按照粤语发音译为三藩市。19世纪出现淘金热,华人劳工将三藩市称为“金山”。墨尔本也发现金矿并取名“新金山”后,“金山”改为“旧金山”。
         Note: Originally it was transliterated as 圣弗兰西斯科. Because the name was too long, it was re-translated into 三藩 City based on Cantonese pronunciation. There occurred a gold rush in the 19th century, and Chinese laborers called San Francisco the "Golden Hill (金山)". After gold mines were discovered in Melbourne and named "New Golden Hill (新金山)", "Golden Hill (金山)" was changed to "旧金山(Old Golden Hill)".


Indies 印(yìn)度(dù)群(qún)岛(dǎo)
    注:1492年8月,克里斯托弗·哥伦布误将墨西哥湾和加勒比海之间的群岛认为是印度的海岛,故命名为印度群岛,也把西印度群岛和美洲新大陆上的原著民(印第安人Indians)称为印度人。
    Note: In August 1492, Christopher Columbus mistook the islands between Mexico Gulf and Caribbean Sea as islands of India, so the islands was named Indian Islands, and the indigenous Indians of the West Indies and the New Land of America were called India Indians.

Tokyo 东(dōnɡ)京(jīnɡ)
    注:Tokyo 旧称 Edo (えど 江户),即河口的意思。1868年成为首都后改称Tokyo。tō的意思是东,kyō的意思是京都,因此 Kokyo 意译为东京(东京都)。
    Note: Tokyo, formerly known as Edo (えど 江户), means estuary. After becoming the capital in 1868, it was renamed Tokyo. tō means east and kyō means capital, thus 东京 (东京都Tokyo Capital) by free translation.

Japan 日(rì)本(běn)
     注:日本最初称为“やまと/Yamato(邪(xié)马(mǎ)台(tái)),音译为“倭(wō)”,因此被称为倭(wō)国(ɡuó)。日本人不喜欢这个倭,便将“倭”改为发音类似的“和(hé)”,即大(dà)和(hé)民(mín)族(zú)。
唐朝时(618年—907年)中文”日本“(意思是日出的地方)一词传到日本,但继续读作hinomoto 或yamato,成为日本正式汉语国名(689年)。日本奈良时代(794-1192)日本的汉字读音也传入日本,日语读音也变为nichihon,后又变为nippon及nihon(にほん)(「ニチホン」→「ニッポン」→「ニホン」)。根据古汉语英文译为Japan,沿用至今。
    Note: Japan was formerly known as "やまと/Yamato (邪马台xiémǎtái)", which was transliterated as "倭wō", and hence 倭国(wōguó). But Japanese disliked this 倭wō, so they changed "倭wō" to "和he" which as similar pronunciation with 倭wō, thus the Daiwa nationality.(大和民族dàhé mínzú). During the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), Chinese word "日本rìběn" (meaning the place of sunrise) spread to Japan; however it was still pronounced as hinomoto or yamato, and became the official Chinese name (689 AD). During the Nara era (794-1192 AD), the Chinese pronunciation of 日本rìběn was also introduced to Japan, so the Japanese pronunciation was also changed to nichihon, then nippon and nihon (にほん) ("ニチホン"→ "ニッポン"→ "ニホン"). Based on ancient Chinese, it is translated into Japan in English, which is still in use today.

 

         

东京 Tokyo

 

Seoul Special City 首(shǒu)尔(ěr) 
    注:古代称为“南(nán)京(jīnɡ)”(Namgyeong )、“汉(hàn)阳(yánɡ)”(Hanyang )、“汉(hàn)城(chénɡ)”(Hansung ),日本统治时期称为“京(jīnɡ)城(chénɡ)”、“井(jǐnɡ)城(chénɡ)”(Gyeongsung)。1948年开始使用“서울”(Seoul),汉语名称则继续使用“汉城”。2005年1月19日中文译名改为“首尔”。
    Note: In ancient times, the names were "Nanjing(南京nánjīng)" (Namgyeong), "Hanyang(汉阳hànyáng)" (Hanyang), and "Hancheng(汉城hànchéng)" (Hansung), and were "Jingcheng(京城jīngchéng)" and "Jingcheng(井城jǐngchéng)" (Gyeongsung) during the time occupied by Japan. The name "서울" (Seoul) began to be used in 1948, and the Chinese translation remained "汉城hànchéng(Han City)". The Chinese translation was changed to "首尔shǒu'ěr" on January 19, 2005.

(South) Korea 韩(hán)国(ɡuó)
    注:韩国(한국/Hanguk),全称大(dà)韩(hán)民(mín)国(ɡuó)(대한민국/Daehan Minguk),朝(cháo)鲜(xiǎn)称之为南(nán)朝(cháo)鲜(xiǎn)(남조선/South Korea),也有称南(nán)韩(hán)South Korea。
韩国国名来源于古代朝鲜半岛南部的三个部落联盟“三韩”,即辰韩、马韩和弁韩)。中国早在东汉(25年-220年)就称“三韩”为“韩国”。
1948年8月15日“大韩民国”正式确定,简称韩国。
     Note: The full name of Korea (한국/Hanguk) is the Republic of Korea (대한민국/Daehan Minguk), called 南朝鲜náncháoxiǎn (남조선/South Korea) by North Korea (朝鲜cháoxiǎn), or 南韩nánhán (South Korea) by some others.
The name of Korea is derived from the Three Korea Tribes (辰韩, 马韩, and 弁韩), tribal alliances of the southern part of the Korean Peninsula in ancient times. The Three Korea Tribes was called as "韩国hánguó(Korea)" by China since as early as Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 AD).
On August 15, 1948, "the Republic of Korea" was officially named, Korea (韩国hánguó) for short.


North Korea 朝(cháo)鲜(xiǎn)
    注:朝鲜即北(běi)朝(cháo)鲜(xiǎn)(North Korea),也有称北(běi)韩(hán)。英语Korea一词来源于古代的高(ɡāo)丽(lí)王朝名称Korea、Corea、Coree (公元 918-1392)。然而朝鲜自称“朝鲜”(조선),因此汉译亦为朝鲜。
    Note: North Korea (朝鲜cháoxiǎn) is also known as 北朝鲜běi cháoxiǎn(North Korea), or 北韩běihán(North Korea) by some others. The English word "Korea" came from Korea, Corea, Coree, the names of the ancient Koryo Dynasty  (918-1392 AD). However, North Korea calls itself "朝鲜cháoxiǎn" (조선), so the Chinese translation is also 朝鲜cháoxiǎn" (조선).

Russia 俄(é)罗(luó)斯(sī)
    注:日本和朝鲜根据日语的ロシア roshia和朝鲜语的노서아 noseoa,并参考中国明朝的“鲁(lǔ)西(xī)亚(yà)”,都将俄罗斯称为“露(lù)西(xī)亚(yà)”。俄罗斯“Россия”(罗(luó)西(xī)亚(yà))”被蒙古人征服后,根据蒙古语译为“俄(é)罗(luó)斯(sī)”、“鄂(è)罗(luó)斯(sī)”、“斡(wò)罗(luó)思(sī)”,后又被译为“罗(luó)刹(shā)”、“鲁(lǔ)西(xī)亚(yà)”,最后译为“俄罗斯”,简称“俄(é)国(ɡuó)”。
    Note: Japan and North Korea both called Russia“露西亚lùxīyǎ (Lucia)”,
referring to ロシア roshia in Japanese and 노서아 noseoa in Korean, and referring to the 鲁西亚lǔxīyǎ(Rusia) by Ming Dynasty in China. When Russia "Россия" (Rosia) was conquered by the Mongols, it was translated into "Russia俄罗斯èluósī", "Oros鄂罗斯èluósī", "Orros斡罗思wòluōsī" based on Mongolian, and later translated into "罗刹luō shā(Raksha)" and "鲁西亚Rusia", and finally "俄罗斯Russia", as "俄国Russia" for short.

 

        

俄罗斯 Russia

 

Belarus 白(bái)俄(é)罗(luó)斯(sī)
    注:Bela的意思是”白“,与汉语“白”的拼音非常相近,所以Bela译为白,即是音译也是意译。
白俄罗斯(Беларусь, or Белоруссия -Belorussia)”简称“白俄”,意思即是“白色的罗斯(Ruotsi, Rus)”,曾被音译为“别(bié)洛(luò)露(lù)西(xī)亚(yà)”。现在白俄罗斯官方的中文名称为“白罗斯”,不再是白俄罗斯,因为不希望与俄罗斯的名称混淆,毕竟白俄罗斯一词中的”俄罗斯“部分руссия和俄罗斯Россия虽然非常相似,却是不同的。
    Note: Bela means "white(白)", very similar to bai, the pinyin of Chinese "白(white)", so the translation of Bela as 白 is both transliteration and free translation.
Belarus (Беларусь or Белоруссии-Belarus)", abbreviated as "Belarus", meaning "White Ruotsi or Rus", was once transliterated as "Belorussia(别洛露西亚)". Now the official name by Belarus is “白罗斯”, no longer 白俄罗斯, because Belarus does not want to confuse the name 白罗斯 with 白俄罗斯 . Though the "Russian" part of the word Белоруссии, руссия, and the word Россия (Russian) are very similar, but they are different.

 

          

白俄罗斯 Belarus

 

The Netherlands 荷(hé)兰(lán)
    注:荷兰的正式国名为尼(ní)德(dé)兰(lán)(Nederland),意译为“低(dī)地(dì)国(ɡuó)”。
在许多其它语言中,常用尼德兰(Nederland)的Holland地区的名称来称呼这个国家。1806年建立荷兰王国(Koninkrijk Holland)时曾使用Holland(荷兰)作为国名。15世纪以后的正式国名则为尼德兰(Nederland)。此外,也有将尼德兰(Nederland)称为佛(fó)兰(lán)德(dé)(Vlaanderen)。
荷兰人(Nederlanders)中的日(rì)耳(ěr)曼(màn)人(German)称为“Dutch”,来源于Deutsch(德(dé)意(yì)志(zhì)人)一词,所以荷兰人也被称为Dutch,代替了Nederlanders,沿用至今。
2020年荷兰政府宣布,在正式场合只会使用the Netherlands一词,不再使用Holland,而汉译仍为荷兰。

     Note: The official name of Holland is Nederland (尼德兰nídélán), translated by idea as "Low Country". In many other languages, the name of the Holland region of Nederland is often used to refer to this country. When the Koninkrijk Holland (荷兰王国) was established in 1806, Holland was used as the country's name. But after the 15th century, the official name of the country was Nederland. In addition, Nederland is also known as Vlaanderen (佛兰德fúlándé) by some others. The Germans of the Nederlanders were called "Dutch", which was derived from the word Deutsch (Germans), so the Nederlanders are also called Dutch, instead of Nederlanders, which is still in use today.
In 2020, the Dutch government announced that only the term the Netherlands would be used in formal cases, and Holland would no longer be used. However, Chinese translation is still 荷兰hélán。

 

荷兰 The Netherlands

 

Germany 德(dé)国(ɡuó)
     注:汉语德国一词译自Deutschland,来源于古高地德语diutisciu land。Deutsch音译为德(dé)意(yì)志(zhì),在日本根据日本读音“ドイツ-Doitsu)”译为独(dú)逸(yì)”,在韩国也译为“独逸”。英语German来自拉丁语Germania(日(rì)耳(ěr)曼(màn)尼(ní)亚(yà)),音译为日耳曼,然后演变出Germany一词。
     Note: Chinese word 德国 is from the translation of Deutschland, derived from Old High German “diutisciu land”. Deutsch is transliterated into 德意志 in Chinese, in Japan it is transliterated as 独逸 based on the Japanese pronunciation "ドイツ-Doitsu", and in Korea it is also translated to 独逸. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, transliterated into 日耳曼 , And then evolved the word Germany.

 

           

德国 Germany

 

Hungary 匈(xiōnɡ)牙(yá)利(lì)
    注:匈牙利语的国名是Magyarország,意思是“马(mǎ)扎(zhá)尔(ěr)人的国家”。英语Hungary的来历很有历史背景,来源于拉丁语Hungaria一词,可能受粤语影响译成匈牙利。该词及拉丁语Hungaria前面的”Hun”证明了更早在匈牙利定居的匈(xiōnɡ)奴(nú)与匈牙利的关系,该词后面的”garia”来自拉丁化的拜占庭希腊语Oungroi (Οὔγγροι),而Oungroi 又是借自古保加利亚语ągrinŭ。

顺便说,匈牙利位于欧洲中部,匈牙利语也称马扎尔语,却不属于印欧语系而是乌拉尔语系,与周边国家的语言没有任何关系。此外,欧洲人普遍姓在后,而匈牙利人则是姓在前。

    Note: The name of the country in Hungarian is Magyarország, which means "the country of Magyars". The origin of English Hungary has a historical background, which comes from Latin Hungaria, which may be translated into 匈牙利xiōngyálì in Chinese due to the influence of Cantonese. The "Hun" in the name of Hungary (and Latin Hungaria) is most likely due to founded historical associations with the Huns (匈奴xiōngnú), who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word, garia, comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi (Οὔγγροι), and the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ.

    By the way, Hungary is located in central Europe. Hungarian is also called Magyar, but it is not a member of the Indo-European language family but An Ural language family, which has nothing to do with the languages of neighboring countries. In addition, Europeans generally have their surnames last, while Hungarians have their last names first.

 

         

匈牙利布达佩斯 Budapest, Hungary

 

America 美(měi)国(ɡuó)
    注:America这个名字最早是在1507年在记录中出现的。 美国是最新出现的殖民化国家,因此America曾被音译为“米(mǐ)利(lì)坚(jiān)”、“咩(miē)哩(li)干(ɡàn)”、“弥(mí)利(lì)坚(jiān)”、“美(měi)利(lì)哥(ɡē)”、“亚(yà)美(měi)理(lǐ)驾(jià)合众国”、“合(hé)众(zhònɡ)国(ɡuó)”、“美(měi)国(ɡuó)”等,另外由于国旗的图案又被称为“花(huā)旗(qí)国(ɡuó)”。受中文影响,日本将美国译为“米(mǐ)利(lì)坚(jiān)合(hé)众(zhònɡ)国(ɡuó)”、“亚(yà)墨(mò)利(lì)加(jiā)”,简称“米(mǐ)国(ɡuó)”,而越南语的美国Hoa Kỳ 意思则是“花旗”,在朝鲜美国미국的意思则是“米(mǐ)国(ɡuó)”。
美国全称美(měi)利(lì)坚(jiān)合(hé)众(zhònɡ)国(ɡuó)(United States of America,缩写为USA、U.S、US或America,中文统一译为美国。
    Note: The name America first appeared in record in 1507. America is the latest colonized country. Therefore, America once was transliterated into "Milican米利坚", "Bao Ligan咩哩干", "Milcan弥利坚", "Mei Li Ge美利哥", "亚美理驾合众国", "United States 合众国" and "America美国", etc., In addition, it is also called "Citi" because of the pattern of the national flag.  Influenced by Chinese, Japan translated America into "米利坚合众国", "亚墨利加", or "米国" for short. In Vietnamese, HoaKỳ means "Citi", and in North Korea, 미국 means "米国mǐguó" .
The full name of America is the United States of America, USA, U.S, US or America for short, and in Chinese it is translated into 美国měiguó.

 

                                       

美国 America

 

                                                      

 

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从汉语到十大语系 Od Chinese do 10 Leading Language Families
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