关于姓名翻译

                    About Personal Name Translation

                                       

 

一 关于中国人名的翻译 About Chinese personal name translation


过去,中国人名地名的翻译沿用的是“威妥玛式注音法”,由英国驻中国大使馆秘书威妥玛于1867 年设计、吉尔斯于1912 年修改而成(可不是韦氏音标哦),用拉丁字母来拼写汉语名称,由此邓小平Hsiao-ping Deng,诸葛亮Liang Chuge(诸葛是姓,亮是名),杨老师 Chien-hua Yang。

In the past, the translation of Chinese personal and geographical names was on the basis of "Thomas F·Wade Pronunciation", which was designed in 1867 by Thomas F.Wade, secretary of the British Embassy in China, and modified by Giles in 1912 (but not Merriam-webster pronunciation), using Latin letters to spell Chinese names, thus Hsiao-ping Deng, Liang Chuge (Zhuge is the surname, Liang first name), and Chien-hua Yang (JYang).

 

                                  

                                                              威妥玛 Thomas F·Wade

 

                                 

 

1977 年联合国教科文组织根据中国的申请通过“关于中国人名地名拼写的决议”,汉语名称要按照汉语拼音进行拼读,姓在前、名在后,姓和名的首字母大写,名字要拼读在一起。从此, 诸葛亮拼读为Zhuge Liang,杨老师的名字也拼读成Yang Jianhua(不要写成Jianhua Yang, 也不要写成Yang Jian-hua或者Yang Jian Hua)。为避免姓和名混淆,也可以将姓的字母全部大写,如YANG Jianhua。当然,在正式身份证件中姓名的所有字母可以都是大写的,如YANG JIANHUA。

In 1977, the Unesco adopted the "Resolution on the Spelling of Chinese Personal Names and Geographical Names" based on China's application. Since then Chinese names should be spelled in accordance with Chinese pinyin, with surname first and initial letters capitalized, and fist name should be spelled together. Thus, Liang Chuge is spelled as Zhuge Liang, and JYang's name is spelled as Yang Jianhua (not Jianhua Yang, nor Yang Jian-hua, nor Yang Jian Hua). To avoid confusion between the last name and the first name, all the letters of the surname can be capitalized, such as YANG Jianhua. Of course, all letters in official ID documents can be capitalized, such as YANG JIANHUA.

不过,有些历史人物的名称保持不变。由此,孔子的拼读仍然为Confucius, 同样,孟子Mencius, 孙中山Sun Yat-sen, 蒋介石Chiang Kai-shek, 宋庆龄Soong Chin-ling, 宋美龄Soong May-Iing。

However, the names of some historical figures remain unchanged. Thus, Confucius is still spelled as Confucius, and the same with Mencius, Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek, Soong Chin-ling, Soong May-Iing.

 

有些已经成为固定名称的也保持不变。由此,忽必烈仍然为Kublai Khan, 成吉思汗Genghis Khan,达赖喇嘛Dalai Lama,李政道T D Lee,李安Ann Lee等。
Some names fixed also remain unchanged. Thus, Kublai Khan remains unchanged, and the same with Genghis Khan, Dalai Lama, T D Lee, Ann Lee, etc.

港台地区很多人名的翻译仍保持原有习惯,例如王建民 Chien-Ming Wang或C. M. Wang。
Translations of many names in Hong Kong and Taiwan regions still maintain their former ones, such as Chien-Ming Wang or C. M. Wang.

 

二 关于中国人的拉丁字母  About Latin names of Chinese people


有些中国人为国际或文化交流的需要,为自己起一个拉丁字母名,一般由”拉丁字母名+汉语姓”构成,如David Wang大卫·王,Mary Liu玛丽·刘,Charles Zhang查尔斯·张, Juliet Wu朱丽叶·吴,John Yang(Jan Yang)约翰·杨(扬·杨)等。

For facilitating international or cultural exchange, some Chinese people give themselves Latin names, usually composed of "Latin fist name + Chinese surname", such as David Wang, Mary Liu, Charles Zhang, Juliet Wu, John Yang (Jan Yang), and so on.

可是不要搞混了姓和名,例如,约翰John是名,所以可以有John Yang杨约翰,称呼的时候是“杨先生”而不是“约翰先生”。但史密斯Smith是姓不是名,所以Smith Yang是不对的。

But do not confuse the last name and first name; for example, John is the first name,  so there may be John Yang, called "Mr. Yang" but not "Mr. John". But Smith is the last name, not the first name, so Smith Yang is not correct.

波兰朋友称呼杨老师Jan(即John),根据读音他们以为Yang就是Jan,其实非也。Jan是名,而Yang是姓。杨老师任教的卢布林约翰·保罗二世天主教大学,即是由在这所百年历史的大学工作过24年之久(1954-1978)的教皇约翰·保罗二世而得名。保罗是姓,而约翰是名(教皇在该大学任教时的本名为Karol Wojtyła卡罗尔·沃伊迪瓦)。

Polish friends call JYang Jan (i.e. John), and they think Yang is just Jan according to the pronunciation, but it's not true. Jan is the first name and Yang is the last name. John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin (Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II), where JYang teaches, was named after Pope John Paul II, who worked at this century-old university for 24 years (1954-1978). Pawła (i.e. Paul) is surname and Jana (i.e. Jan, or John) is the first name (the Pope's former name at the university was Karol Wojtyła).

 

    

教皇约翰·保罗二世和教室 Pope John Paul II and the classroom

 

三 关于拉丁字母姓名的汉译 About translation of Latin names into Chinese


拉丁字母姓名一般按照音译,例如Mike迈克,Magda(magdalena马格达莱纳 )玛格达,也可以译成马佳,Michał米哈伊,也可以译成米好、米豪等。

Latin alphabet names are generally transliterated, such as Mike迈(mài)克(kè), Magda (magdalena马(mǎ)格(ɡé)达(dá)莱(lái)纳(nà)) 玛(mǎ)格(ɡé)达(dá), which can also be translated as 马(mǎ)佳(jiā), Michał 米(mǐ)哈(hā)伊(yī), which can also be translated as 米(mǐ)好(hǎo),米(mǐ)豪(háo), etc.

有些姓名不要根据最初起源意译。例如:
爱迪生Edison不要译成“爱德华Edward的儿子”;
史密斯Smith不要译成铁匠blacksmith;
卡朋特Carpenter不要译成木匠;
阿道夫Adolf不要译成高貴的狼;
大卫David不要译成所爱的人;
乔治George不要译成农夫;
亨利Henry不要译成一家之主;
卡梅倫Cameron不要译成歪掉的鼻子;
雨果Hugo不要译成灵魂;
杰克JACK不要译成上帝的馈赠;
约翰John不要译成上帝的恩赐;
金King不要译成国王;
劳伦斯Lawrence不要译成月桂树;
马克Mark不要译成有侵略性的人;
菲利普Philip不要译成战士;
泰勒Taylor不要译成裁缝;
托马斯Thomas不要译成太阳神(或一对孪生子);
马丁Martin不要译成好战的;
西蒙Simon不要译成扁鼻子的;
毕夏普Bishop不要译成主教;
托伯Toper不要译成酒鬼;
乔布斯Jobs不要译成“工作”、“仇恨”、“遭人恨的”

Some names should not be freely translated according to their original meaning. For example:
Edison should not be translated as "Edward's son"
Smith should not be translated as blacksmith,
Carpenter should not be translated as the one doing carpentry ,
Adolf should not be translated as noble wolf,
David should not be translated as beloved one
George should not be translated as farmer
Henry should not be translated as parent
Cameron should not be translated as crooked nose
Hugo should not be translated as soul
Jack should not be translated as God's gift
John should not be translated as God's offer
King should not be translated as king of kingdom
Lawrence should not be translated as laurel tree
Mark should not be translated as aggressive man
Philip should not be translated as warrior
Taylor should not be translated as dressmaker
Thomas should not be translated as Sun God (or twin)
Martin should not be translated as warlike
Simon should not be translated as flat-nosed
Bishop should not be translated as bishop of church
Toper should not be translated as drunker
Jobs should not be translated as "work", "hatred", or "being hated"

有些姓名是可以意译的。例如:
Szafran可以音译为萨弗兰,也可以意译为藏红花;
Susan(Suzanne)可以音译为苏珊,也可以意译为小百合;
Susanna可以音译为苏珊娜(Susie苏西),也可以意译为百合花。

Some names can be paraphrased. For example,
Szafran can be transliterated as 萨(sà)弗(fú)兰(lán) or paraphrased as藏(zànɡ)红(hónɡ)花(huā)(saffron flower);
Susan (Suzanne) can be transliterated as 苏(sū)珊(shān), or paraphrased as 小(xiǎo)百(bǎi)合(hé)(little lily);
Susanna can be transliterated as苏(sū)珊(shān)娜(nà) (Susie苏(sū)西(xī)) or paraphrased as 百(bǎi)合(hé)花(huā)(lily flower).

不同地区译名会有不同。例如:
约翰·保罗二世,在台湾等地区则译为若望·保禄二世;
唐纳德·特朗普,在台湾等地区则译为川普。

The transliteration can vary from region to region. For example,
John Paul II约(yuē)翰(hàn)·保(bǎo)罗(luó) is translated as 若(ruò)望(wànɡ)·保(bǎo)禄(lù) in Taiwan;
Donald Trump 唐(tánɡ)纳(nà)德(dé)·特(tè)朗(lǎnɡ)普(pǔ) is translated as 川(chuān)普(pǔ) in Taiwan and some other regions.

有些姓名已有固定汉译,就没有必要重新翻译。例如:
Some names are already translated in a fixed Chinese way, so there is no need to be re-translated. For example:

Adam 亚(yà)当(dānɡ)
Adams 亚(yà)当(dānɡ)斯(sī)
John 约(yuē)翰(hàn)或(huò)若(ruò)望(wànɡ)
Abraham 亚(yà)伯(bó)拉(lā)罕(hǎn)
Adolph 阿(ā)道(dào)夫(fū)
Alexander 亚(yà)历(lì)山(shān)大(dà)
Anna 安(ān)娜(nà)
Ann 安(ān)
Alfred 艾(ài)尔(ěr)弗(fú)雷(léi)德(dé)
Alice 爱(ài)丽(lì)丝(sī)
Anderson 安(ān)德(dé)森(sēn)
Andrew 安(ān)德(dé)鲁(lǔ)
Anthony 安(ān)东(dōnɡ)尼(ní)
Arnold 阿(ā)诺(nuò)德(dé)
Arthur 阿(ā)瑟(sè)
Augustine 奥(ào)古(ɡǔ)斯(sī)丁(dīnɡ);

Carl 卡(kǎ)尔(ěr)
Catherine 凯(kǎi)瑟(sè)琳(lín)
Charlotte 夏(xià)洛蒂(夏(xià)洛(luò)特(tè))
Daniel 丹(dān)尼(ní)尔(ěr)
David 大(dà)卫(wèi)(戴(dài)维(wéi))
Edward 爱(ài)德(dé)华(huá)
Eva(Ewa) 伊(yī)娃(wá)
Eve(Przeddzień) 夏(xià)娃(wá)
Fitzgerald 菲(fēi)兹(zī)杰(jié)拉(lā)德(dé)
Fox 福(fú)克(kè)斯(sī)
George 乔(qiáo)治(zhì)
Green 格(ɡé)林(lín)
Henr y亨(hēnɡ)利(lì)

Jack 杰(jié)克(kè)
Jackson 杰(jié)克(kè)逊(xùn)
James 詹(zhān)姆(mǔ)斯(sī)(詹(zhān)姆(mǔ)士(shì))
Jane 简(jiǎn)
Jacob 雅(yǎ)各(ɡè)布(bù)
Joseph 约(yuē)瑟(sè)夫(fū)
Juliet 朱(zhū)丽(lì)叶(yè)(Julia朱(zhū)莉(lì)亚(yà))
Lee 李(lǐ)
Louise 路(lù)易(yì)丝(sī)
Louisa 路(lù)易(yì)莎(shā)
Lucy 露(lù)西(xī)
Mary 玛(mǎ)丽(lì)
Michael 迈(mài)克(kè)尔(ěr)
Maria 玛(mǎ)利(lì)亚(yà)
Martin 马(mǎ)丁(dīnɡ)
Matthew 马(mǎ)修(xiū)
Milton 弥(mí)尔(ěr)顿(dùn)
O’Neil 奥(ào)尼(ní)尔(ěr)

Richardson 理(lǐ)查(chá)森(sēn)
Sarah 莎(shā)拉(lā)
Simon(Szimon) 西(xī)蒙(ménɡ)
Snow 斯(sī)诺(nuò)
Sophia 索(suǒ)菲(fēi)娅(yà)
Smith 史(shǐ)密(mì)斯(sī)
Stephen 史(shǐ)蒂(dì)芬(fēn)
Susan 苏(sū)珊(shān)
Susanna 苏(sū)珊(shān)娜(nà)
Taylor 泰(tài)勒(lè)
Thomas 托(tuō)马(mǎ)斯(sī)
Thomason 托(tuō)马(mǎ)森(sēn)
Thomson 汤(tānɡ)姆(mǔ)森(sēn)
Tom 汤(tānɡ)姆(mǔ)
William 威(wēi)廉(lián)
Wilson 威(wēi)尔(ěr)逊(xùn)

有些历史人物的姓名也不要重新翻译。例如:
Names of some historical figures should not be re-translated either. For example:

 

Albert Einstein 阿(ā)尔(ěr)伯(bó)特(tè)·爱(ài)因(yīn)斯(sī)坦(tǎn)
Bacon 培(péi)根(ɡēn)
Bach 巴(bā)赫(hè)
Bruno 布(bù)鲁(lǔ)诺(nuò)
Chamberlain 张(zhānɡ)伯(bó)伦(lún)
Churchill 丘(qiū)吉(jí)尔(ěr)
Cromwell 克(kè)伦(lún)威尔
Chaucer 乔(qiáo)叟(sǒu)
Clinton 克(kè)林(lín)顿(dùn)
Shakespeare 莎(shā)士(shì)比(bǐ)亚(yà)
George Bernard Shaw 乔(qiáo)治(zhì)·萧(xiāo)伯(bó)纳(nà)
Hemingway 海(hǎi)明(mínɡ)威(wēi)
Newton 牛(niú)顿(dùn)
Darwin 达(dá)尔(ěr)文(wén)
Edison 爱(ài)迪(dí)生(shēnɡ)
Franklin 富(fù)兰(lán)克(kè)林(lín)
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin 普(pǔ)京(jīnɡ)
Henry Norman Bethune 白(bái)求(qiú)恩(ēn)
Napoléon I 拿(ná)破(pò)仑(lún)一(yí)世(shì)
John Fitzgerald Kennedy 肯(kěn)尼(ní)迪(dí)
Jefferson 杰(jié)斐(fěi)逊(xùn)
Satter 萨(sà)特(tè)
Nixon 尼(ní)克(kè)松(sōnɡ)
Spenser 斯(sī)宾(bīn)塞(sài)
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 伊(yī)丽(lì)莎(shā)白(bái)二(èr)世(shì)

Marilyn Monroe 玛(mǎ)丽(lì)莲(lián)·梦(mènɡ)露(lù)(可是美国第五任总统James Monroe则译成詹姆斯·门罗But James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States, was translated into 詹(zhān)姆(mǔ)斯(sī)·门(mén)罗(luó));
Sherlock·Holmes 夏(xià)洛(luò)克(kè)·福(fú)尔(ěr)摩(mó)斯(sī)(据说最早的翻译者是福建人,所以Holmes被译成福尔摩斯而不是霍尔摩斯It is said that the earliest translator was from Fujian, so Holmes was translated into 福(fú)尔(ěr)摩(mó)斯(sī) instead of 霍(huò)尔(ěr)摩(mó)斯(sī))。

还有also:
Maria Skłodowska-Curie(Marie Curie)玛(mǎ)丽(lì)·居(jū)里(lǐ)(居(jū)里(lǐ)夫(fū)人(rén));
Mikołaj Kopernik(Nicolaus Copernicus)尼(ní)古(ɡǔ)拉(lā)·哥(ɡē)白(bái)尼(ní);
Frédéric François Chopin 弗(fú)里(lǐ)德(dé)里(lǐ)克(kè)·弗(fú)朗(lǎnɡ)索(suǒ)瓦(wǎ)·肖(xiāo)邦(bānɡ);
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof 路(lù)德(dé)维(wéi)克(kè)·拉(lā)扎(zhā)尔(ěr)·柴(chái)门(mén)霍(huò)夫(fū);
Michał Piotr Boym 卜(bo)弥(mí)格(ɡé)(米(mǐ)哈(hā)尔(ěr)·博(bó)伊(yī)姆(mǔ));
Adam Mickiewicz 亚(yà)当(dānɡ)·密(mì)茨(cí)凯(kǎi)维(wéi)奇(qí);
Henryk Sienkiewicz 亨(hēnɡ)利(lì)克(kè)·显(xiǎn)克(kè)维(wéi)奇(qí);
Władysław Reymont 弗(fú)瓦(wǎ)迪(dí)斯(sī)瓦(wǎ)夫(fū)·莱(lái)蒙(ménɡ)特(tè);
Bruna Schulze 布(bù)鲁(lǔ)诺(nuò)·舒(shū)尔(ěr)茨(cí);
Cheslaw MIlosz 切(qiè)斯(sī)瓦(wǎ)夫(fū)·米(mǐ)沃(wò)什(shén);
Wislawa Szymborska 维(wéi)斯(sī)拉(lā)娃(wá)·辛(xīn)波(bō)斯(sī)卡(kǎ);
Robert Lewandowski 罗(luó)伯(bó)特(tè)·莱(lái)万(wàn)多(duō)夫(fū)斯(sī)基(jī)。

四 在拉丁字母姓名重新起一个汉语的姓名
 Give new Chinese names to Latin name people
杨老师的建议是,最好考虑到原有姓名的读音、含义以及个人气质。以下汉字供起名参考:
JYang's advice is that it is best to take into account the pronunciation, meaning of the original names as well as personal temperament. The following Chinese characters are for naming reference.

艾(ài),嘉(jiā) ,雷(léi),豪(háo),莫(mò),霓(ní),裳(chánɡ),秦(qín),秋(qiū),月(yuè),何(hé),茜(xī),雪(xuě),若(ruò),夕(xī),晨(chén),凡(fán),思(sī),奇(qí),余(yú),爱(ài),晶(jīnɡ),兰(lán),晓(xiǎo),琴(qín),吴(wú),剑(jiàn),雯(wén),博(bó),欣(xīn),雅(yǎ),梦(mènɡ),月(yuè),谢(xiè),莉(lì),莎(shā),罗(luó),刚(ɡānɡ),叶(yè),含(hán),波(bō),苏(sū),岚(lán),马(mǎ),晓(xiǎo),石(shí),柯(kē),文(wén),波(bō),韩(hán),云(yún),莎(shā),夏(xià),诗(shī),乐(lè),安(ān),洁(jié),丽(lì),怡(yí),万(wàn),谭(tán),小(xiǎo),慧(huì),乐(lè),剑(jiàn),麦(mài),秋(qiū),迈(mài),克(kè),斯(sī),曼(màn),戴(dài),乐(lè),书(shū),珊(shān),吉(jí),斌(bīn),金(jīn),墨(mò),卢(lú),姿(zī),婷(tínɡ),凯(kǎi),罗(luó),琳(lín),安(ān),燕(yàn),舒(shū),影(yǐnɡ),妮(nī),古(ɡǔ),山(shān),风(fēnɡ),高(ɡāo),远(yuǎn),龙(lónɡ),飞(fēi),菲(fēi),静(jìnɡ),谷(ɡǔ),珠(zhū),左(zuǒ),超(chāo),然(rán),悠(yōu),林(lín),哲(zhé),史(shǐ),云(yún),晓(xiǎo),波(bō),各(ɡè),布(bù),菡(hàn),娜(nà),恩(ēn),苏(sū),鹏(pénɡ),陆(lù),维(wéi),佳(jiā),鹿(lù),简(jiǎn),妮(nī),芹(qín),奈(nài),奕(yì),云(yún),明(mínɡ),叶(yè),华(huá),乔(qiáo),莎(shā),可(kě),何(hé),韩(hán),苗(miáo),轩(xuān),茜(xī),玥,默(mò),容(rónɡ),荣(rónɡ),岸(àn),东(dōnɡ),碧(bì),涵(hán),凝(nínɡ),悦(yuè),卓(zhuó),曲(qǔ),律(lǜ),萱(xuān),豪(háo),米(mǐ),木(mù),冰(bīnɡ),司(sī),特(tè),夏(xià),雪(xuě),佳(jiā),文(wén),雯(wén),然(rán),麦(mài),乔(qiáo),静(jìnɡ),川(chuān),然(rán),爽(shuǎnɡ),旭(xù),婷(tínɡ),啸(xiào),奈(nài),乃(nǎi),哲(zhé),茗(mínɡ),涛(tāo),楠(nán),辛(xīn)

 

五 你知道这些有关姓名的知识吗? Do you know anything about names?


1 中国的《百家姓》收录的姓氏有504个,而据统计曾经有过23,813个姓,现在仍在使用的姓仍多达11,939个,常见的大约200多个。中国人的姓绝大多数是一个字的单姓,现在最多的单姓是:
There are 504 surnames included in "Family Names of China", and according to statistics, there were once 23,813 surnames, and as many as 11,939 surnames are still in use now, with about 200 popular ones. The vast majority of Chinese surnames are one-character surnames, and now the most one-character surnames are:

王(wánɡ)、李(lǐ)、张(zhānɡ)、刘(liú)、陈(chén)

也有少数两个以上字的复姓,最常见的是
There are also a few two-character surnames, and the popular ones are

司(sī)徒(tú)、诸(zhū)葛(ɡě)、司(sī)马(mǎ)

更多如 More:
东(dōnɡ)郭(ɡuō)、西(xī)门(mén)、上(shànɡ)官(ɡuān)、钟(zhōnɡ)离(lí)、令(lìnɡ)狐(hú)、慕(mù)容(rónɡ)、东(dōnɡ)方(fānɡ)、黄(huánɡ)埔(pǔ)、皇(huánɡ)甫(fǔ)、尉(yù)迟(chí)、夏(xià)侯(hóu)、公(ɡōnɡ)羊(yánɡ)、长(zhǎnɡ)孙(sūn)、淳(chún)于(yú)、单(dān)于(yú)、太(tài)叔(shū)、申(shēn)屠(tú)、公(ɡōnɡ)孙(sūn)、公(ɡōnɡ)良(liánɡ)、太(tài)史(shǐ)、拓(tuò)拔(bá)、澹(tán)台(tái)、公(ɡōnɡ)冶(yě)、轩(xuān)辕(yuán)等;

 

三个字的姓名占84.3%,两个字的姓名占14.0%,最长的姓名是15个字,不过超过10个字的姓名基本少数民族姓名音译的结果。

Three-character names account for 84.3%, two-character names account for 14.0%, and the longest names are of 15 characters, but names with more than 10 characters are basically the result of transliteration of minority names.

 

                                                

 

中国人的姓名中有一个字具有区别辈分的功能,不同辈分如父子是不能使用同一个字的,例如,孔氏家族自明朝的第56代至105代开始表示辈分的字是(注:请注意其中的韵律”ang”):
One of the characters in Chinese names has the function of distinguishing generations, and different generations such as father and son cannot share the same characters. For example, from the 56th generation in the Ming Dynasty to 105th generation the characters indicating different generations of the Kong family are: (Note: please pay attention to the rhyme “ang”):

56~65:希(xī)言(yán)公(ɡōnɡ)彦(yàn)承(chénɡ)  宏(hónɡ)闻(wén)贞(zhēn)尚(shànɡ)衍(yǎn)


66~75:兴(xīnɡ)毓(yù)传(chuán)继(jì)广(ɡuǎnɡ)   昭(zhāo)宪(xiàn)庆(qìnɡ)繁(fán)祥(xiánɡ)


76~85:令(lìnɡ)德(dé)维(wéi)垂(chuí)佑(yòu)   钦(qīn)绍(shào)念(niàn)显(xiǎn)扬(yánɡ)


86~95:建(jiàn)道(dào)敦(dūn)安(ān)定(dìnɡ)   懋(mào)修(xiū)肇(zhào)彝(yí)常(chánɡ)


96~105:裕(yù)文(wén)焕(huàn)景(jǐnɡ)瑞(ruì)  永(yǒnɡ)锡(xī)世(shì)绪(xù)昌(chānɡ)

 

其中第65代的“宏”字取代的是“弘”字,“衍”字取代的是“胤”字,因为中国姓名也有忌讳,当年的皇帝姓名里有弘”字和“胤”,老百姓必须避讳使用。

Among them, "宏Hong" of the 65th generation replaced "弘Hong", "衍Yan" replaced "胤Yin", because Chinese naming also has taboo, so people must avoid the characters "弘Hong" and "胤Yin" from emperor's names of that time.

 

                                                  

 

据杨老师所知,最近的孔氏家族后代是第80代嫡长孙孔佑仁,男,汉族,2006年出生于台湾;其父孔垂长系孔子第79代嫡孙,1975年出生于台湾台北市,世袭封号为“末代衍圣公”,现任中华大成至圣先师孔子协会会长。

As far as JYang knows, the most last descendant now of the Confucius family is Kong Youren, the 80th generation grandson, male, Han nationality, born in Taiwan in 2006; his father Kong Chuichang, the 79th generation grandson of Confucius, born in Taipei, Taiwan in 1975, with hereditary title of "the Last Generation Holy Duke Yanshenggong", now is the president of the Association of Great Sages Confucius of China.

 

2 虽然西方众多妇女自称女权主义者,但结婚后普遍会改姓丈夫的姓或使用双姓(不同于中国的复姓)。例如:
Although many women in the West call themselves feminists, generally they will change their surnames to their husbands’ or use double-barrelled surnames (nazwisko złożone) after marriage (different from Chinese two-character surname). For example:

唐纳德·特朗普的第一任夫人原名伊凡娜·玛丽·泽尔尼科娃,嫁给特朗普后随丈夫的姓:伊凡娜·特朗普,与他人再婚后仍随特朗普的姓,而特朗普第三任妻子梅拉尼娅·特朗普也随特朗普的姓;

Donald Trump's first wife, formerly named Ivana Marie Zelnickova, when married to Trump, took her husband's last name: Ivana Trump, and still kept Trump’s surname after her remarry, while Trump’s third wife also took Trump’s surname: Melania Trump;

希拉里·戴安·罗德姆与克林顿结婚5年后出于政治考虑也改随克林顿姓成为希拉里·克林顿。

Five years after marrying Clinton, Hillary Diane Rodham took Clinton’s surname and changed her name to Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton for political reasons.

居里夫人原名Maria Skłodowska,丈夫是Pierre Curie,婚后使用双姓保留了原波兰的姓:Maria Skłodowska-Curie(简称Maria Curie玛丽居里);

Madame Curie’s former name was Maria Skłodowska, and her husband was Pierre Curie. After marriage, she retained her own Polish surname using double-barrelled surname: Maria Skłodowska-Curie (Maria Curie for short);

法国男科学家弗雷德里克·约里奥-居里与伊雷娜·约里奥-居里结婚时,双方姓氏都改为双姓约里奥-居里,男方原姓氏为约里奥,女方原姓氏为居里;

When the French male scientist Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie married Irène Joliot-Curie, they both changed their surnames to double-barrelled surname Joliot- Curie, the man’s own surname being Joliot, and the woman’s own surname Curie;

在波兰,偶尔也会见到用短横连接的双姓,例如:
In Poland, we occasionally see double-barrelled surnames connected by dashes.For example:

Edward Rydz-Śmigły 爱德华·雷兹-施米格里
Jan Nowak-Jeziorański 扬·诺瓦克-耶祖兰斯基
Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński 塔德乌斯·博伊-泽林斯基
Zygmunt Solorz-Żak 齐格蒙特·索洛兹-扎克

 

3 波兰人的姓名都在日历上面啦,一年365天每一天都有一个名人的姓名供人们起名参考,波兰人普遍根据日历起名,所以重名的很多;

The names of Poles are all on the calendar. There is a celebrity name for each day of 365 days of the year for people’s reference. Poles generally name themselves according to the calendar, so there are many duplicate names;

波兰最普遍的姓是诺瓦克,科瓦尔斯基,维希涅夫斯基,沃西克; 最普遍的女性名字是安娜、玛利亚和卡塔日娜,最普遍的男性名字是皮奥特、克日什托夫和安德烈。

The most widespread Polish surnames are Nowak, Kowalski, Wiśniewski and Wójcik. The most popular female names in Poland were Anna, Maria and Katarzyna. The most popular male names were Piotr, Krzysztof and Andrzej;

女性多以-ska,-eka,-dzka为后缀,男性名字多以-ski, -eki, -dzki为后缀,这个后缀具有高贵的含义;
Female names are mostly suffixed with -ska, -eka, -dzka, and male names are mostly suffixed with -ski, -eki, -dzki, which have noble meaning;

很多波兰名字来源于宗教或历史君主。
Many Polish names derived from religion or monarchs in history.

来源于斯拉夫圣人的名字如沃伊切赫(圣阿达尔伯特)、斯坦妮斯瓦(圣斯坦妮斯劳斯)或卡齐米日(圣卡西米尔)。
The names of Slavic saints, such as Wojciech (St Adalbert), Stanisław (St Stanislaus), or Kazimierz (St Casimir).

来源于历史上君主的斯拉夫名字,如博列斯瓦夫、莱赫、米什科、瓦迪斯瓦夫,也很常见的。
此外,也有一些立陶宛血统的名字,如奥尔吉德(阿尔及尔达斯)、维托尔德(维陶塔斯)或达努塔。
Slavic names used by historical Polish monarchs, e.g. Bolesław, Lech, Mieszko, Władysław, are common as well.
Additionally, a few names of Lithuanian origin, such as Olgierd (Algirdas), Witold (Vytautas) or Danuta, are also quite popular.

来源于天主教的男性名字,例如:
Male names of Catholic origin. For example:

Szymon 西蒙(Simon西蒙 )
Piotr 皮奥特(Peter彼得)
Andrzej 安德烈(Andrew安德鲁)
Krzysztof 克日什托夫(Christopher克里斯托弗)
Jakub 雅各布(Jacob雅各布)
Tomasz 汤玛士(Thomas托马斯)
Mateusz 马修(Matthew马修)
Bartosz 巴托斯 (Bartholomew)
Michał 米哈伊(Michael迈克尔)
Filp 菲尔普 (Philip菲利普 )

来源于天主教的女性名字如:
Female names of Catholic origin. For example:

Michalina 米哈琳娜
Filipina 菲利普娜
Agnieszka 艾格尼丝卡(Agnes艾格尼丝)
Joanna 乔安娜
Anna 安娜(派生自derived from Ann安)
Ania(派生自Ann安)
Maria 玛利亚
Katarzyna卡塔日娜(Catherine or Katherine凯瑟琳,来自 from Catherine of Alexandria)
Kasia (派生自derived from Catherine)
Helena 海伦娜(Helen海伦)
Aleksandra 亚历山德拉(Ola,Alexandra亚历山大))
Igor 伊戈尔,
Dominika 多米尼加(Dominicus多米尼库斯 )
Patrycja 帕特里夏(Patricius帕特里修斯)
Kinga 金佳
Kunegunda 库内贡德 (Kunigunde库尼贡德 )
Paulina 宝琳娜(Paul, Pawel)
Martyna 玛蒂娜(Martinus马蒂努斯 )
Marcin 马辛(Martin马丁)

(注:波兰女性名字结尾皆为-a)
(Note: Polish female names all end with -a)

英语中只有代词才有主格、宾格(以及所有格)的变化,而波兰人的姓名也有主格、宾格的变化。例如:
In English, only pronouns have variations of nominative case, objective case (and possessive case) , but Polish personal names also have variations of nominative case and objective case. E.g:

Mariusz Milczarek mnie odwiedził.
(马里乌斯·米察雷克来拜访我)

Odwiedziłem Mariusza Milczarka.
(我去拜访马里乌斯·米察雷克)

又如 For one more example:
Michał Uposzlewicz poinformował mnie o sprawie.
(米哈伊·乌波什列维奇把这件事告诉了我)

Poinformowałem o sprawie Michała Uposzlewicza
(我把这件事告诉了米哈伊·乌波什列维奇)

更为有趣的是,波兰的节假日之多是有名的,而且波兰人一年中还要两次庆祝生日呢!在波兰,每个人除生日外,还有一个姓名日(imieniny)。

What is more interesting is that Poland is famous for its so many holidays, and Poles celebrate their birthdays twice a year! In Poland, in addition to birthday, everyone has a Name Day (Imieniby).

我们来看看神奇的波兰日历吧。一年365天里,每一天有至少2个代表姓名日的名字,而一个名字在一年里会出现5次。每年的日历上的姓名日名字都是同样的。例如每年的三月20日和五月18日都是亚历山德拉的姓名日。如果她的生日是在2月23日,那么她的姓名日就是在其生日后的第一个有亚历山德拉的日子,即三月20日,在这一天也要好好庆祝的。

Let's take a look at the magical Polish calendar. In 365 days of a year, each day has at least 2 names representing the name day, and a name appears 5 times in a year. The names representing name days on the calendar every year are the same. For example, every March 20th and May 18th are Aleksandra's name days. If her birthday is on February 23, then her name day (imieniny) is the first day with the name Aleksandra on after her birthday, i.e. March 20, and there should be a celebration on this day.

姓名日快乐!
Wszyslkiego najlepszego z okazji imienin! (Happy Name Day)

 

 

 

也可以在网上查看波兰的姓名日:
We can also check the Polish name day online:

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imieniny    或者 or:

https://www.behindthename.com/

                                       

 

杨老师有个温馨建议

课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                                  

JYang has a warm suggestion

What do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 


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