抑郁症,一个沉重的话题

             Depression Disorder, a Heavy Topic

 

医学词语学习 medical words to learn


抑(yì)郁(yù)症(zhènɡ) depression


忧(yōu)郁(yù)症(zhènɡ) melancholia (depressive disorder)


焦(jiāo)虑(lǜ)症(zhènɡ) anxiety disorder


症(zhènɡ)状(zhuànɡ) symptom


治(zhì)疗(liáo) treatment


自(zì)杀(shā) (commit) suicide


情(qínɡ)感(ɡǎn)(心(xīn)境(jìnɡ))障(zhànɡ)碍(ài) emotional (mood) disorder


心(xīn)理(lǐ)疾(jí)病(bìnɡ) mental illness


心(xīn)理(lǐ)医(yī)生(shēnɡ) psychologist


心(xīn)理(lǐ)治(zhì)疗(liáo) psychotherapy


物(wù)理(lǐ)治(zhì)疗(liáo) physiotherapy/physicotherapeutics


失(shī)眠(mián) insomnia


食(shí)欲(yù)不(bù)振(zhèn) poor appetite


脐(qí)带(dài)血(xuè)干(ɡàn)细(xì)胞(bāo) umbilical cord blood stem cells


脸(liǎn)书(shū) Facebook (FB)


 (元(yuán)宇(yǔ)宙(zhòu) Meta)


色(sè)拉(lā)布(bù) Snapchat


抖(dǒu)音(yīn) Tik Tok

 

                

 

大家好!我们今天聊一个沉重的话题:抑郁症。我们将讨论以下9个话题:
Hello, everyone! Today we will talk about a heavy topic: depression disorder. We will discuss the following 9 topics:

1 什么是抑郁症?
2 抑郁症与忧郁症、焦虑症是什么关系?
3 抑郁症有什么症状?
4 抑郁症可以自查吗?
5 如何治疗抑郁症?
6 抑郁症治疗有新的进展吗?
7 抑郁症患者应该怎样对待疾病?
8 抑郁症与媒体有关系吗?
9 我们应该怎样正确关心抑郁症患者?
1 What is depressive disorder?
2 What is the relationship between melancholia, depression and anxiety?
3 What are the symptoms of depression?
4 Can we conduct self-administered measurement?
5 How depression is treated?
6 Is there any new development in the treatment of depression?
7 How should depression patients face their illness?
8 Is depression disorder related to media?
9 How should we properly take care of patients with depression?

 

                       

 

1 什么是抑郁症?What is depression?


据世卫组织估计,全球抑郁症患者高达3.5亿,即大约每20个人中就有1个抑郁症患者,可是只有不到25%的患者会自动求医,而接受治疗的只有8%。
Estimated by WHO, there are as many as 350 million people suffering from depression disorder globally, that is, about 1 in 20 people is suffering from depression, but less than 25% of patients seek medical treatment themselves, while only 8% have received treatment.

抑郁症是精神情感障碍的心理疾病,表现为心境低落、压抑,甚至还可能有自杀企图。
由于患者大脑中的神经递质5-羟色胺(5-HT)发生紊乱或缺乏,患者无法自我克服,其痛不欲生的精神痛苦是健康人难以想象的,所以中度及重度患者必须依靠药物。
Depression is a mental illness of psycho-emotional disorder, revealed as low mood, depression, and even suicide attempts.
Due to the disorder or lack of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the patients’ brain, the patient cannot control it by themselves. The extreme mental pain is unimaginable for healthy people, so moderate and severe patients must rely on medicines.

 

                  

                                                 抑郁症世界地图 World Depression Map

 

                              

 

2 抑郁症与忧郁症、焦虑症是什么关系?What is the relationship between melancholia, depression and anxiety?


忧虑症即忧郁性疾患,其实就是抑郁症,包括:重度抑郁症、持续性抑郁症和季節性抑郁症。
焦虑症虽然和抑郁症症状类似,但却是不同的。焦虑只是因为生活、工作等原因造成一时的紧张不安。
Melancholia, namely depressive disorder, is actually depression, including: severe depression, constant depression, and seasonal depression.
Although the symptoms of anxiety are similar to those of depression, they are different. Anxiety is just a momentary anxiety caused by life, work and so on.

 

3 抑郁症有什么症状?What are the symptoms of depression?


抑郁症一个重要的问题是失眠(或嗜睡)、头晕、心悸、食欲不振、体重减轻;
此外情绪低落、自责甚至悲观厌世;
精力也无法集中,联想受到抑制,少言寡语,语速缓慢;
也没有主动参加集体活动的意愿。
An important problem of depression is insomnia (or drowsiness), dizziness, palpitations, loss of appetite and weight loss;
And no mood, self-blame, and even pessimistic and world-weariness;
Attention cannot be concentrated, the association is suppressed, few words and slow speech;
No willingness to participate in collective activities.

 

4 抑郁症可以自查吗?Can we conduct self-administered measurement?


精神科或心理医生对患者都会进行问答作为诊断参考。测试题包括SDS,QIDS_SR16,DASS,MMPI以及贝克等自评量表。这里介绍全球普遍采用的PHQ-9抑郁症筛查量表。
The psychiatrist or psychologist will conduct questions and answers to the patients as a reference for diagnosis. Test questions include SDS, QIDS_SR16, DSS, MMPI and Beck Self-administered Measurement. Here PHQ-9 Depressive Disorders Self-administered Measurement is introduced, which is commonly used worldwide. 

PHQ-9抑郁症筛查量表很简单但是很有效的自评量表,患者根据近两周的情况回答9个问题。
PHQ-9 Depressive Disorders Self-administered Measurement is a simple but very effective self-administered measurement. Patients answer 9 questions based on the situation in the past two weeks.

序号

项目 programs

没有

有几天

一半以上时间

几乎天天

1

做事提不起劲或没有兴趣

0

1

2

3

2

感到兴趣低落,沮丧或绝望

0

1

2

3

3

入睡困难/睡不安或睡得过多

0

1

2

3

4

感觉疲倦或没有活力

0

1

2

3

5

食欲不振或吃得太多

0

1

2

3

6

觉得自己很糟或觉得自己很失败,或让自己/家人失望

0

1

2

3

7

对事物专注有困难,例如看报纸或看电视时

0

1

2

3

8

行动或说话速度缓慢到别人已经察觉?或刚好相反--变得比平日更烦躁或坐立不安,动来动去

0

1

2

3

9

有不如死掉或用某种方式伤害自己的念头

0

1

2

3

 

Nr.

Programs

no

A few days

More than half the days

Almost all days

1

Little interest or pleasure in doing things

0

1

2

3

2

Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless

0

1

2

3

3

Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much

0

1

2

3

4

Feeling tired or having little energy

0

1

2

3

5

Poor appetite or overeating

0

1

2

3

6

Feeling bad about yourself — or that you are a failure or have let yourself or your family down

0

1

2

3

7

Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television

0

1

2

3

8

Moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed? Or so fidgety or restless that 0ou have been moving a lot more than usual

0

1

2

3

9

Thoughts that you would be better off dead, or thoughts of hurting yourself in some way

0

1

2

3

0~4分:没有抑郁症;
5~9分:可能有轻微抑郁症;
10~14分:可能有中度抑郁症;
15~19分:可能有中重度抑郁症;
20~27分:可能有重度抑郁症;
0~4 points: no depression;
5-9 points: possibly mild depression;
10~14 points: possibly moderate depression;
15-19 points: possibly moderate to severe depression;
20~27 points: possibly severe depression;

 

5 如何治疗抑郁症?How depression disorder is treated?


1)药物治疗 Medication
主要针对中度以上抑郁症,如选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SSRI)、5-羟色胺和去甲肾上腺素再摄取抑制剂(SNRI)、去甲肾上腺素和特异性5-羟色胺能抗抑郁药(NaSSA),以及非上述药物如曲唑酮(改善情绪及睡眠,用于治疗重度抑郁症及焦虑症)及为缓解焦虑的劳拉西泮等。
Mainly for moderate or severe depression, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), norepinephrine and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSA), as well as non-above drugs such as Trazodone (to improve mood and sleep, for treatment of severe depression and anxiety) / and lorazepam to relieve anxiety, etc.

2)心理治疗 Psychotherapy
包括认知行为治疗,以及支持性心理治疗、人际治疗、婚姻和家庭治疗、精神动力学治疗等。
It includes cognitive behavioral therapy, as well as supportive psychotherapy, interpersonal therapy, marriage and family therapy, psychodynamic therapy, etc.

3)物理治疗 physiotherapy
如重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗,主要针对轻中度的抑郁发作。
目前,药物作用仍然以暂缓症状为主。
Such as repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment, mainly aiming at mild to moderate depressive episodes.
At present, the effect of drugs is still mainly to relieve symptoms.

 

6 抑郁症治疗有新的进展吗? Is there any new development in the treatment of depression?


最近科学家发现,情绪低落会导致血清素下降,引起干细胞功能受损,证实情绪与干细胞生长有关,从而为干细胞治疗抑郁症、焦虑症等提供了新的途径。
《实验生物学与医学通报》上的一项研究表明,脐带血干细胞对抑郁状态下的认知功能障碍具有改善作用,同时也证实干细胞可以有效修复受抑制的神经细胞,激发它们活力,这为包括抑郁症在内的多种难治愈性神经免疫疾病提供了潜在的有效治疗方式。

Recently, scientists have discovered that depression may lead to a decrease in serotonin and impairment of the function of stem cells, confirming that emotions are related to growth of stem cells, thus providing a new way for stem cells to treat depression and anxiety.
A study in "Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine" shows that umbilical cord blood stem cells can improve cognitive dysfunction in depression. It also proves that stem cells can effectively repair inhibited nerve cells and stimulate their vitality, which provides potentially effective treatments for a variety of refractory neuroimmune diseases, depression included.

 

                    

                         难治性抑郁症患者脐带血细胞的概率
                         Probability of umbilical cord blood cells in patients with refractory depression

 

7 抑郁症患者应该怎样对待自己的疾病?How should depression patients face their illness?


精神科医生对抑郁症患者往往有以下建议:
1)不必自责,勇敢面对目前的煎熬,慢慢找回自我;
2)多与信任的人沟通,表达自己的感受和希望对方怎样做;
3)坚持规范治疗。
Psychiatrists often offer the following suggestions for patients with depression:
1) Don't blame yourself, just face the current suffering bravely, and find yourself back step by step;
2) Communicate more with people you trust, express your feelings and what you want others to do for you;
3) Adhere to standard treatment.

此外,以下建议供参考:

  1. 爱情、亲情、友谊永远都是任何疾病的良医良药;
  2. 确定自己喜爱或擅长的事情或爱好,坚持做下去,
  3. 使自己忙碌起来,比如去做志愿者;
  4. 宠物也可以成为心理治疗的良医良药;
  5. 阳光也可以改善或减轻压抑情绪;
  6. 独处抑郁的时候,去看书、看电影、听音乐、健身、运动、旅游等等;
  7. 学会转移注意力。

In addition, the following suggestions are for reference:
1) Love/family/friendship is always a good medicine for any disease;
2) Determine something or hobbies you like or are good at, and stick to it;
3) Keep yourself busy, such as volunteering;
4) Pets may also be a good medicine for psychotherapy;
5) Sunlight can also improve or relieve depressed emotion;
6) When alone in depression, go to read books/watch movies/listen to music/fitness/sports/travel, etc.;
7) Learn to divert attention.

 

                                      

 

8 抑郁症的发生与媒体有关系吗?


Is depression disorder related to Media?
最新研究表明,智能手机和社交媒体与患抑郁症的风险有关,尤其是在儿童和年轻人中。
The latest research shows that smartphones and social media are associated with the risk of depression, especially among children and young people.

近日JAMA Network Open 期刊发表了哈弗大学等机构的研究论文”Association Between Social Media Use and Self-reported Symptoms of Depression in US Adults“。该研究通过对超过5,000名成年人抑郁症的筛查揭示,使用社交媒体与抑郁症状恶化之间存在关联,特别是使用”脸书”、“阅后即焚”软件”色拉布”以及”抖音海外版”,更可能使健康的成年人患抑郁症。其中使用”脸书”、”色拉布”和抖音的风险分别增加42%、53%、39%。而抖音和色拉布主要与35岁及以上人群的抑郁症状相关,脸书则与35 岁以下人群的抑郁症状相关。
Recently, “JAMA Network Open” published a research paper "Association Between Social Media Use and Self-reported Symptoms of Depression in US Adults" by Harvard University and other institutions. The study revealed an association between the use of social media and worsening depressive symptoms through the screening of more than 5,000 adults with depression, especially the use of “Facebook(FB)”, “burn after reading” software Snapchat, and Tik Tok (overseas version) is more likely to cause depression in healthy adults. Among them, the risk of using "Facebook", Snapchat and Tik Tok increased by 42%, 53%, and 39% respectively. While TikTok and Snapchat are mainly related to depressive symptoms of people 35 or older, and Facebook is associated to depressive symptoms of people under 35.

 

                            

 

9 我们应该怎样正确关心抑郁症患者?How should we properly take care of patients with depression?

  1. 医生常说亲友要多陪伴患者。但过度陪伴反而可能诱发抑郁症恶化。重要的是,作为亲属、好友、老师、同学、同事,对抑郁症患者要多给予理解、爱、温暖和实际帮助。

Doctors often say that relatives and friends should accompany the patient more time. But excessive companionship may cause deterioration of depression. Importantly, relatives, friends, teachers, classmates, and colleagues should give more understanding/love/warmth and practical help to patients with depression.

 

                                    

 

2)对抑郁症患者不能像对其他处于病痛悲伤中的人那样鼓励、劝导、安慰甚至激将,更不可对抑郁症患者说类似下面的话:
“加油!”
“这算不得什么,你会好的。”
“你看,大家都很快乐,你难道不想快乐吗?”
“打起精神!”
”你很坚强,你没问题!“
“你看上去好好的,你会好的。”
”你多么幸福啊,为什么不高兴呢?”
We must not encourage, persuade, comforted or even motivate patients with depression as do to other people in pain or sadness, and should not say something like the following to patients with depression:
"come on!"
"It's nothing. You’ll be fine."
"You see, everyone is happy. Don't you want to be happy?"
"cheer up!"
"You are so strong, you are fine!"
"You look fine, you will OK."
“What happy life you are living! why are you unhappy?"

         

            

 

                                         

 

                                                       

 

杨老师有个温馨建议

课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                                  

JYang has a warm suggestionWhat do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 


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