新型冠状病毒 Novel Coronavirus

 

新xīn型xínɡ冠ɡuàn状zhuànɡ病bìnɡ毒dú novel coronavirus

肺fèi炎yán pneumonia

疫yì情qínɡ epidemic

病bìnɡ例lì case

隔ɡé离lí isolation

基jī因yīn序xù列liè genetic sequence

蝙biān蝠fú bat

传chuán染rǎn/感ɡǎn染rǎn infection

症zhènɡ状zhuànɡ symptom


                       时政汉语 - 新型冠状病毒

      Current Affairs Chinese - Novel Coronavirus

 

截至1月29日24时,中国确诊新型冠状病毒病例7711例,重症病例1370例,累计死亡病例170例,累计治愈出院病例124例,共有疑似病例12167例。

 

Until 24:00 Jan. 29, 7711 cases of novel coronavirus were confirmed in China, among which 1370 were severe cases, 170 died, and 124 were cured and discharged, and there are still 12,167 suspected cases.


中国境外病例:泰国14例,日本11例,新加坡10例,澳大利亚8例,马来西亚8例,韩国6例,美国5例,法国5例,德国4例,阿联酋4例,加拿大3例,越南2例,尼泊尔1例,斯里兰卡1例,芬兰1例,菲律宾1例,印度1例。


Cases outside China: Thailand 14, Japan 11, Singapore 10, Australia 8, Malasia 8, Korea 6, America 5, France 5, Germany 4, United Arab Emirates 4, Canada 3, Vietnam 2, Nepal 1, Sri Lanka 1, Finland 1, Philippines 1,India 1.

 

引起这次新冠状病毒肺炎的是一种刚刚发现的新型冠状病毒。


这是21世纪以来冠状病毒第三次肆虐人类世界。2003年和2012年,SARS病毒(严重急性呼吸综合征病毒)和MERS病毒(中东呼吸综合征病毒)曾经两次突然降临人类世界。



虽然同属于冠状病毒家族,但新冠状病毒并非SARS或者它的变种,两者之间的基因序列相似度只有80%,是相当遥远的亲戚。

 

What caused this novel coronavirus pneumonia was a newly discovered coronavirus.


This is the third time that the coronavirus has ravaged the human world since the 21st century. In 2003 and 2012, the SARS virus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus) and the MERS virus (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus) made two sudden access into the human world.


Although both belong to the coronavirus family, the novel coronavirus is not SARS or its variants. The genetic sequence similarity between the two is only 80%, which is a fairly distant relative.

 

现在人们已经获得了新冠状病毒的完整基因组序列信息。特别值得注意的是两种天然寄生于蝙蝠身体内的冠状病毒:一种存在于舟山地区的某种蝙蝠体内,序列相似度接近90%;另一种则存在于云南菊头蝠体内,序列相似度高达96%。冠状病毒的天然宿主很可能也是蝙蝠。

 

The complete genomic sequence of the novel coronavirus is now available. Two coronaviruses are worth particularly noted that are naturally parasitic in the bat's body: one exists in a certain bat in Zhoushan, with a sequence similarity close to 90%, and the other exists in the chrysanthemum, Yunnan, with similar sequences as high as 96%. The natural host of the coronavirus is also likely to be bat.

 

比天然宿主更重要的,是确认新冠状病毒的中间宿主——也就是找到它从蝙蝠到人之间的中间链条。


在SARS和MERS的案例里,科学家们确认果子狸和骆驼是两种病毒最重要的中间宿主,病毒在它们的种群内广泛传播和变异,最终变成了可以直接入侵人体导致疾病的病毒。


那么在新冠病毒的案例里,谁是可能的中间宿主呢?至今人们还没有发现。

 

More important than the natural host is identifying the intermediate host for the novel coronavirus—that is, finding its intermediate chain from bat to human.


In the cases of SARS and MERS, scientists confirmed that civet and camel are the most important intermediate hosts of the two viruses. The virus spread and mutated widely in their populations, and eventually became viruses that could directly invade the human body and cause disease.


So in the case of the novel coronavirus, who is the possible intermediate host? So far people have not found out.

 

指望特效药和疫苗来是不现实的。从1374年威尼斯封城对抗黑死病,到1910年伍连德切断铁路对抗东北大鼠疫,再到这次武汉等地封城,实践证明隔离是迄今为止人类对抗烈性传染病最有效的措施之一。

 

It is unrealistic to expect special effects and vaccines to cure the novel coronavirus. From the closure of the city of Venice in 1374 to fight the Black Death, to the closure of the railway by Wu Liande in 1910 to fight the rat plague in Northeast China, and to the closure of the cities of Wuhan and other places, practice has proven that isolation is so far one of the most effective measures to combat severe infectious diseases.

 

截至1月29日24时,中国确诊新型冠状病毒病例7711例,重症病例1370例,累计死亡病例170例,累计治愈出院病例124例,共有疑似病例12167例。

 

Until 24:00 Jan. 29, 7711 cases of novel coronavirus were confirmed in China, among which 1370 were severe cases, 170 died, and 124 were cured and discharged, and there are still 12,167 suspected cases.


中国境外病例:泰国14例,日本11例,新加坡10例,澳大利亚8例,马来西亚8例,韩国6例,美国5例,法国5例,德国4例,阿联酋4例,加拿大3例,越南2例,尼泊尔1例,斯里兰卡1例,芬兰1例,菲律宾1例,印度1例。


Cases outside China: Thailand 14, Japan 11, Singapore 10, Australia 8, Malasia 8, Korea 6, America 5, France 5, Germany 4, United Arab Emirates 4, Canada 3, Vietnam 2, Nepal 1, Sri Lanka 1, Finland 1, Philippines 1,India 1.

 

引起这次新冠状病毒肺炎的是一种刚刚发现的新型冠状病毒。


这是21世纪以来冠状病毒第三次肆虐人类世界。2003年和2012年,SARS病毒(严重急性呼吸综合征病毒)和MERS病毒(中东呼吸综合征病毒)曾经两次突然降临人类世界。



虽然同属于冠状病毒家族,但新冠状病毒并非SARS或者它的变种,两者之间的基因序列相似度只有80%,是相当遥远的亲戚。

 

What caused this novel coronavirus pneumonia was a newly discovered coronavirus.


This is the third time that the coronavirus has ravaged the human world since the 21st century. In 2003 and 2012, the SARS virus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus) and the MERS virus (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus) made two sudden access into the human world.


Although both belong to the coronavirus family, the novel coronavirus is not SARS or its variants. The genetic sequence similarity between the two is only 80%, which is a fairly distant relative.

 

现在人们已经获得了新冠状病毒的完整基因组序列信息。特别值得注意的是两种天然寄生于蝙蝠身体内的冠状病毒:一种存在于舟山地区的某种蝙蝠体内,序列相似度接近90%;另一种则存在于云南菊头蝠体内,序列相似度高达96%。冠状病毒的天然宿主很可能也是蝙蝠。

 

The complete genomic sequence of the novel coronavirus is now available. Two coronaviruses are worth particularly noted that are naturally parasitic in the bat's body: one exists in a certain bat in Zhoushan, with a sequence similarity close to 90%, and the other exists in the chrysanthemum, Yunnan, with similar sequences as high as 96%. The natural host of the coronavirus is also likely to be bat.

 

比天然宿主更重要的,是确认新冠状病毒的中间宿主——也就是找到它从蝙蝠到人之间的中间链条。


在SARS和MERS的案例里,科学家们确认果子狸和骆驼是两种病毒最重要的中间宿主,病毒在它们的种群内广泛传播和变异,最终变成了可以直接入侵人体导致疾病的病毒。


那么在新冠病毒的案例里,谁是可能的中间宿主呢?至今人们还没有发现。

 

More important than the natural host is identifying the intermediate host for the novel coronavirus—that is, finding its intermediate chain from bat to human.


In the cases of SARS and MERS, scientists confirmed that civet and camel are the most important intermediate hosts of the two viruses. The virus spread and mutated widely in their populations, and eventually became viruses that could directly invade the human body and cause disease.


So in the case of the novel coronavirus, who is the possible intermediate host? So far people have not found out.

 

指望特效药和疫苗来是不现实的。从1374年威尼斯封城对抗黑死病,到1910年伍连德切断铁路对抗东北大鼠疫,再到这次武汉等地封城,实践证明隔离是迄今为止人类对抗烈性传染病最有效的措施之一。

 

It is unrealistic to expect special effects and vaccines to cure the novel coronavirus. From the closure of the city of Venice in 1374 to fight the Black Death, to the closure of the railway by Wu Liande in 1910 to fight the rat plague in Northeast China, and to the closure of the cities of Wuhan and other places, practice has proven that isolation is so far one of the most effective measures to combat severe infectious diseases.

 

一.关于新型冠状病毒

I. About Novel Coronavirus

1. 病毒对紫外线和热敏感;


   The virus is sensitive to ultraviolet and heat;

 

2. 56度30分钟、乙醚、75度乙醇、含氯消毒剂、过氧乙酸和氯仿等酯溶剂可有效灭活病毒,但氯已定不能有效灭活病毒;


56 degrees and 30 minutes, ether, 75 degrees ethanol, chlorine-containing disinfectant, peracetic acid and chloroform ester solvents can effectively inactivate the virus, but chlorine has not been able to effectively inactivate the virus;

 

3. 传染源目前主要是新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎患者;


The source of infection is mainly patients with pneumonia infected by new coronavirus;

 

4. 主要传播途径是呼吸道飞沫和接触传播;


The main route of transmission is respiratory droplets and contact transmission;

 

5. 易感人群为老年及体弱者以及幼儿;


The susceptible groups are the elderly and infirm and the young children;

 

6. 潜伏期3-7天最长不超过14天;


The incubation period is 3-7 days and the maximum is not more than 14 days;

 

7. 主要症状:发热、乏力、干咳,少数有鼻塞、流涕、腹泻等,危重患者甚至无明显发热,多在一周后出现呼吸困难甚至呼吸衰竭。


 Main symptoms: fever, fatigue, dry cough, a few have nasal congestion, runny nose, diarrhea, etc. The critically ill patients do not even have obvious fever, and often have difficulty breathing or even respiratory failure after one week.

 

 

二.如何区分感冒、流感和新型冠状病毒

How to distinguish between colds, flu and novel coronaviruses


1. 感冒由着凉和疲劳引起,症状为: 主要是鼻塞、流涕、打喷嚏,无明显发热、头疼、关节痛、周身不适等,体力和食欲无明显影响;


  A cold is caused by cold and fatigue. The symptoms are: mainly nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, no obvious fever, headache, joint pain, general discomfort, etc., no significant impact on physical strength and appetite;

 

2. 流感由流感病毒引起,发病急,全身症状严重,体温可能39度以上,明显头疼、乏力、食欲下降;


 Influenza is caused by influenza virus, with acute onset, severe systemic symptoms, body temperature may be above 39 degrees, obvious headache, fatigue, and decreased appetite;

 

3. 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎:1)可能是无症状带毒者,仅在呼吸道检测到病毒,所以从疫情发生地出来或与可疑者接触需要进行隔离;2)轻症仅稍微发热、咳嗽、畏寒;3)重症发热咳嗽逐渐加重,一周后发展为肺炎,呼吸加快甚至呼吸衰竭、脏器损害。

 

 Pneumonia infected by novel coronavirus: 1) may be asymptomatic, and the virus is detected only in the respiratory tract, so isolation from the outbreak or contact with suspicious persons is required; 2) mild fever and cough only , and chills; 3) for severe cases fever and cough will gradually be worsened, and one week later will develop pneumonia, accelerated breathing and even respiratory failure and organ damage.

 

三.如何预防新型冠状病毒

How to prevent novel coronavirus


1. 减少外出和聚会;

2. 必要时戴N95口罩;

3. 保持手的卫生,勤洗手;

4. 不要接触野生动物;

5. 注意营养,适当运动,增强免疫力。

 

1. Reduce outings and parties;

2. Wear N95 mouth masks when necessary;

3. Keep your hands clean and wash your hands frequently;

4. Don't touch wild animals;

5. Pay attention to nutrition, proper exercise and enhance immunity

 

 


四.目前中国新型冠状病毒疫情情况

  The current situation of novel coronavirus in China


官方最新表示“仍处于扩散阶段,局部地区有迅速上升趋势,形势复杂严峻”。不过,有可能在中国新年正月十五元宵节(即2月8日)疫情防控出现“明显成效”。

 

The latest official statement said that "it is still in the stage of proliferation, with a rapid upward trend in some areas, and the situation is complicated and severe." However, it is possible to have "obvious good results" in the prevention and control of the outbreak on the 15th Lantern Festival of the Chinese New Year (ie February 8).

 

习近平说,中国人民现在正在与这场疫情进行非常认真的斗争,并说人民的安全与健康始终是第一位的,因此,预防和控制疫情是中国目前最重要的工作。


The Chinese people are now fighting a very serious battle against the epidemic, said Xi, adding that the people's safety and health always come first, and thus the prevention and control of the outbreak is the country's most important work for now.

 

习近平说:“疫情是魔鬼,我们不能让魔鬼藏匿。“


"The epidemic is a devil. We will not let it hide," said Xi.

 

他说,已经为遏制和减轻这一疫情进行了全面部署,并成立了一个与病毒作斗争的中央领导小组。


He said the comprehensive deployment has been made for the containment and mitigation of the epidemic, and a central leading group on battling the virus was established.

 

世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞说,在疫情面前中国政府展现了坚定的政治决心,采取了及时有力的举措,令世人敬佩。

 

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director-general of the WHO,said it is admirable that the Chinese government has shown its solid political resolve and taken timely and effective measures in dealing with the epidemic.

 

他说,中方采取的措施不仅是在保护中国人民,也是在保护世界人民。


China's measures are not only protecting its people but also protecting the people in the whole world, he said.

 

他说,中方公开透明发布信息,用创纪录短的时间甄别出病原体,及时主动同世界卫生组织和其他国家分享有关病毒基因序列。

 

He said that China has released information in an open and transparent manner, identified the pathogen in a record-short time and shared the genetic sequence of the novel coronavirus in a timely manner with the WHO and other countries.

 

他说,中方行动速度之快、动作规模之大,世所罕见。谭德塞说,这体现了中国效率和中国制度的优势。

 

He said that the high speed and massive scale of China's moves are rarely seen in the world, Tedros said it showed China's efficiency and the advantages of China's system.

 

他说:”我相信,中国采取的措施将有效控制并最终战胜疫情。“


He said: “I believe the measures China has taken will effectively control and finally prevail over the epidemic.“

 

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