区块链/数字货币/央行数字货币

                     Blockchain/DIGICCY/DCEP

时政汉语 区块链/数字货币/央行数字货币

Current Affairs Chinese - Blockchain/DIGICCY/DCEP


同学们,席卷全球的疫情之后,世界的格局很可能发生某些重要改变。但是你们知道吗,还有一件事情在不远的将来也可能会大大改变世界的货币和贸易体系,从而改变我们的生活方式。你们能猜出来这件大事是什么吗?


Hi, everyone! What follow the pandemic that is sweeping the world are likely to be some important changes of the world situation. But do you know that there is another thing that may change the world’s currency and trading systems and then our way of life in the near future. Can you guess what will happen?

一.词语学习 Words to learn


数(shù)字(zì)货(huò)币(bì) digital currency (DIGICCY)


央(yānɡ)行(xínɡ)数(shù)字(zì)货(huò)币(bì)支(zhī)付(fù)系(xì)统(tǒnɡ) (central bank) DC/EP(Digital Currency

Electronic Payment)


区(qū)块(kuài)链(liàn) blockchain


比(bǐ)特(tè)币(bì) Bitcoin


天(tiān)秤(chènɡ)币(bì) Libra


点(diǎn)对(duì)点(diǎn) peer-to-peer (P2P)


虚(xū)拟(nǐ)货(huò)币(bì) virtual currency


加(jiā)密(mì) encrypted


分(fēn)布(bù)式(shì)账(zhànɡ)本(běn) distributed ledger


借(jiè)条(tiáo) IOU (I owe you)


篡(cuàn)改(ɡǎi) tamper


伪(wěi)造(zào) forge


腐(fǔ)败(bài) corruption


研(yán)发(fā) research and development (R&D)


专(zhuān)利(lì) Patent


截(jié)至(zhì) as of


匿(nì)名(mínɡ) anonymous


挑(tiǎo)战(zhàn) challenge


结(jié)算(suàn) settlement


交(jiāo)易(yì) transaction


流(liú)通(tōnɡ)中(zhōnɡ)的(de)现(xiàn)金(jīn) cash in circulation (MO)


环(huán)球(qiú)同(tónɡ)业(yè)银(yín)行(hánɡ)金(jīn)融(rónɡ)电(diàn)讯(xùn)协(xié)会(huì)(国(ɡuó)际(jì)银(yín)行(hánɡ)标(biāo)识(zhì)协(xié)议(yì)) SWIFT


风(fēnɡ)险(xiǎn) risk


离(lí)线(xiàn)支(zhī)付(fù) offline payment

 

区块链是什么 What is Blockchain

 


好,我们现在就来聊一聊这件大事。也许你们已经猜出来了。对!我们今天要讨论的是数字货币!


OK, let's talk about this now. Maybe you have already got it. Yes! Today we are going to discuss DIGICCY!

二.区块链 Blockchain


说起数字货币,我们不得不先从区块链说起。


We cannot speaking of digital currency without discussing the blockchain first.

 

  1. 区块链的问世 The emergence of Blockchain

2008年11月1日,一个化名为中本聪的神秘的人在P2P foundation网站上发布了《比特币:一种点对点的电子现金系统》,首次提出比特币这种P2P形式的加密电子虚拟数字货币,从而用分布式账本取代中心化的支付系统,中本聪称之为“区块链”,区块链概念就此诞生,并于2009年1月3日开发出第一个区块,即比特币“创世区块”。

On November 1, 2008, a mysterious person self-named Satoshi Nakamoto published "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-peer (P2P) Electronic Cash System" on the P2P foundation website. The P2P form of encrypted electronic virtual digital currency Bitcoin was proposed for the first time, thus replacing the centralized payment system with distributed ledgers. Satoshi Nakamoto called it "blockchain", and there came the concept of blockchain, and the first block, Bitcoin "Genesis Block", was developed on January 3, 2009.


前不久,脸书也推出加密虚拟数字天秤币(Libra)。


The other day, Facebook also launched an encrypted virtual digital Libra.

 

2. 区块链技术 Blockchain technology

区块链技术与人工智能、大数据、物联网、边缘计算、云计算、5G、6G等改变世界面貌的信息技术,都是数字化信息系统的基础。区块链有多么重要,你就好好地想象吧!


Blockchain technology and artificial intelligence(AI), big data, Internet of Things, edge computing, cloud computing, 5G, 6G and other information technologies (IT) that change the face of the world are the foundations of digital information systems. Just imagine how important blockchain is!

区块链技术是以密码学方式来解决货币支付信任问题的,其关键词是分布式账本、去中心化、重建信用,特别是分布式账本最大程度地保证了支付信息的不可篡改和不可伪造。


Blockchain technology deals with the credit issue in currency payments in the way of cryptography. The keywords are distributed ledgers, decentralization, and credit reconstruction. In particular, distributed ledgers ensure that the payment information cannot be tampered with or forged to the greatest extent.

分布式账本听起来有些难以理解,我们来看一个形象的例子吧。


Distributed ledgers sound a little difficult to understand, so let's take a look at a vivid example.

小王向小李借了一百元钱。按照传统做法,小王给小李写了借条。但是这件事情只有小王和小李知道,而且借条可能丢失、被篡改或伪造,因此是不安全的。


Xiao Wang borrowed one hundred yuan from Xiao Li. According to the traditional practice, Xiao Wang wrote an IOU note to Xiao Li. But only Xiao Wang and Xiao Li knew this, and the IOU sheet may be lost, tampered with, or forged, so it is not safe.

按照分布式账本,这件事是这样来确认其真实并可靠记录下来的:


小王向小李借了一百元钱。小李通过网络将此事公之于众,网络中的所有人听到后,进行点对点的核实,然后每个人都把这个信息记在自己的账本上。如此一来,所有人的账本上都有了记录:“小李借给小王一百元钱”。这个流程记账系统根据时间顺序排列出一个个的区块。所有的区块按照时间顺序连成一条链,成为区块链。区块链可以反向追溯,但不可篡改,因为每个区块都是加密的。


According to the distributed ledgers, this is to confirm that it is true and is reliably recorded in this way:


Xiao Wang borrowed one hundred yuan from Xiao Li. Xiao Li made this public to all through Internet. After hearing that, everyone on the internet checked it peer-to-peer, and then everyone recorded this information in their own account books. As a result, everyone has a record in their account books: "Xiao Li lent Xiao Wang one hundred yuan". This process accounting system arranges blocks one by one in chronological order. All the blocks are linked into a chain in chronological order and become a blockchain. The blockchain can be retroactively traced, but it cannot be tampered with because every block is encrypted.

区块链就是这样颠覆了传统的支付信用。


This is how the blockchain subverts the traditional payment credit.

此外,由于区块的信息是实名的,资金流向可以追踪,因此可以有效地阻止大额的贪污贿赂以及洗钱等腐败及金融犯罪行为。


In addition, because the information of the block is real-name, the flow of funds can be traced, so it can effectively prevent large-amount-money corruption and bribery and money laundering, and financial crimes.

区块链技术 Block technology

 

3. 区块链技术受到全球瞩目

Blockchain technology attracts global eye-balls


重视区块链技术研发的国家很多,如新加坡、日本、韩国、德国、荷兰、法国、美国、英国、欧盟等。


Many countries attach importance to the research and development of blockchain technology, such as Singapore, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Netherlands, France, the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union, etc.

中国在2016年将区块链技术列为战略性前沿技术,可见中国对于区块链的重视。据统计,截至2019年,中国的区块链专利占全球80%以上。


China listed blockchain technology as a strategic frontier technology in 2016, which shows China's emphasis on blockchain. According to statistics, as of 2019, China's blockchain patents accounted for more than 80% of the world.

 

三.数字货币Digital currency (DIGICCY)


区块链技术最大的应用就是数字货币。


突尼斯政府用区块链技术发行的电子第纳尔是世界上第一个国家数字货币。


The biggest application of blockchain technology is DIGICCY.
The e-Dinar issued by the Tunisian government using blockchain technology is the first national DIGICCY in the world.

数字货币以分布式账本体系为基础,不与银行账户直接关联,但可以代替钱币进行可控匿名的支付,因此对原有国际货币体系和贸易体系两个方面进行挑战。


DIGICCY is based on a distributed ledger system and is not directly linked to bank accounts, but it can replace cash for controllable and anonymous payments, thus challenging both the original international monetary system and trading system.

1. 挑战现有国际货币体系

Challenge the current international monetary system


我们知道,货币体系主要功能是:交易、计价和保值。


目前世界的主要结算货币包括美元、欧元、英镑、日元和中国的人民币。


We know that the main functions of the currency system are: trading, pricing and hedging.


The current world's major settlement currencies include USD, Euro dollar, British pound, Japaniese yen, and Chinese RMB.

在货币的交易方面,美元、欧元、日元、英镑、澳元、加元、瑞士法郎、人民币是全球外汇市场的主要交易货币。美元外汇交易占比88%,欧元占比32%,日元占比为17%,英镑为13%,人民币占比为4%。


In terms of currency transactions, US dollar, Euro dolloar, Japanese yen, British pound, Australian dollar, Canadian dollar, the Swiss franc, and RMB are the major trading currencies in the global foreign exchange market. Foreign exchange transactions in US dollar accounted for 88%, Euro dollar accounted for 32%, Japanese yen accounted for 17%, British pound accounted for 13%, and RMB accounted for 4%.

在货币的计价方面,在国际贸易中的结算中美元占85.83%,欧元为6.54%,人民币为2.40%。


In terms of currency pricing, US dollar accounts for 85.83% of the settlement in international trade, Euro dollar for 6.54%, and RMB for 2.40%.

在货币的储备保值方面,截至2019年第四季度,美元资产在各国的外汇储备中占比高达60.89%,欧元资产占比20.54%,人民币仅占比1.96%,位于日元、英镑之后。


In terms of the hedging of currency, as of the fourth quarter of 2019, US dollar assets accounted for 60.89% of foreign exchange reserves of all countries, Euro dollar assets accounted for 20.54%, and RMB for only 1.96%, following Japaniese yen and British pound.

显而易见,目前美元的主导地位不可动摇。


唯一可以挑战美元地位的是数字货币。


Obviously, the current dominance of the US dollar is unshakable.


The only thing that can challenge the status of US dollar is DIGICCY.

 

2. 挑战现有贸易结算体系

Challenge the current trade settlement system

数字货币并非简单的纸钞数字化,而是要替代流通中的现金(M0),即改变传统的货币结算方式。


DIGICCY is not simply the digitization of banknotes, but to replace the cash in circulation (M0), that is, to change the traditional way of currency settlement.


传统跨境清结算高度依赖美国的SWIFT(环球同业银行金融电讯协会) 和CHIPS (纽约清算所银行同业支付系统) 系统。


Traditional cross-border clearing and settlement is highly dependent on the US SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications) and CHIPS (Clearinghouse Interbank Payment System) systems.


但高度依赖SWIFT和CHIPS系统存在着风险,美国可以利用SWIFT和CHIPS系统这种垄断的金融工具进行长臂管辖,不利于全球金融体系的稳定。而且SWIFT和CHIPS系统技术更新缓慢、难以保证安全。


However, there are risks in relying heavily on the SWIFT and CHIPS systems. The United States can make use of SWIFT and the CHIPS system as monopoly financial instruments for long-arm jurisdiction. This is not conducive to the stability of the global financial system. Moreover, SWIFT and CHIPS system technology updates are slow and it is difficult to ensure safety.


现在,利用大数据平台和区块链技术构建一个新的清结算网络,已成很多国家的共识。使用数字货币将会极大提高跨境结算的速度,也比传统跨境结算安全得多。


Now, the use of big data platforms and blockchain technology to build a new clearing and settlement network has become the consensus of many countries. The use of DIGICCY will greatly increase the speed of cross-border settlement and is much safer than traditional cross-border settlement.

央行数字货币 DC/EP

 

 

四.(中国)央行数字货币(即数字人民币)
(China) Central Bank DC/EP(Digital Currency Electronic Payment) (digital RMB) 

  1. 央行数字货币是人民币的数字化

Central bank DC/EP is the digitization of RMB.

中国2019年正式开展央行数字货币的研发,首先在深圳、苏州、雄安、成都进行试点测试。2019年8月,中国首张区块链电子发票在深圳产生。至10月30日,深圳市开出1000多万张区块链电子发票,金额超过70亿元。


China officially launched the R&D of central bank DC/EP in 2019, and first conducted pilot tests in Shenzhen, Suzhou, Xiong'an, and Chengdu. In August 2019, China's first blockchain electronic invoice was generated in Shenzhen. As of October 30, Shenzhen had issued more than 10 million blockchain e-invoices with an amount of more than 7 billion yuan.

2.银行账户开立需要提交很多文件和个人信息,而央行数字货币凭借任何能够证明个人身份唯一标识的东西就可以开立自己的数字货币账户。你的某个身份标识就是你的一个账户,比如说你的车牌号就可以成为你的数字货币的一个子钱包。你可以拥有多个子钱包。你说这有多么方便!


Opening a bank account requires the submission of many documents and personal information, but the central bank DC/EP can open its own digital currency account by virtue of anything that can prove its unique identity. One of your identities is one of your accounts. For example, your license plate number can be a sub-wallet of your DC/EP. You can have multiple sub-wallets. Oh, how convenient this is!

3. 央行数字货币的主要功能包括“扫码支付”、“汇款”、“收付款”和“碰一碰”等。使用央行数字货币时,不需要网络和银行账号。手机里只要装有DC/EP数字钱包,两个手机碰一下,就能实现转账和支付,称为“双离线支付”。而如果没有网络,其他支付工具如支付宝、微信等是无法支付的。你说这有多么方便!

 The main functions of the central bank DC/EP include "code scanning payment", "remittance", "receipt and payment" and "touching". When using central bank DC/EP, no network or bank account is required. As long as the DC/EP wallet is installed in the mobile phone, the two mobile phones can realize transfer and payment by touching each other, which is called "dual offline payment", while other payment tools such as Alipay and WeChat cannot function without internet. Oh, how convenient this is!

4. 央行数字货币属于完全匿名支付,而支付宝、微信等必须实名支付。

央行数字货币是具有国家信用的法定货币,而支付宝、微信等只是一种支付方式,其背后是银行商业信用。所以,你可以不接受支付宝或微信付款,但是你不可以拒绝央行数字货币付款,因为拒绝央行数字货币是违法的。


Central bank DC/EP is completely anonymous payment, and Alipay, WeChat, etc. must function in real name.
The central bank DC/EP is a legal currency with national credit, while Alipay, WeChat, etc. are just ways of payment, behind which is bank commercial credit. Therefore, you can refuse Alipay or WeChat payment, but you can not refuse the central bank DC/EP payment, because it is illegal to reject the central bank DC/EP.

5. 央行数字人民币是法定货币,其效力与安全性最高,而比特币、天秤币(Libra)等不过是一种虚拟货币,没有任何价值基础,也没有任何国家主权的信用担保,风险很大,但可以进行投机操作。

The central bank's digital RMB is legal currency, with the highest effectiveness and security, while Bitcoin, Libra, etc. are merely virtual currency without any value foundation and no credit guarantee from national sovereignty. So they are very risky, but speculative operations can be carried out with them.

6. 目前的支付工具如互联网支付、银行卡支付都是跟传统银行账户绑定的,容易泄露个人账户信息。数字货币和银行账户没有关系,而且货币流通各个环节都使用密码学的设计。你说这有多么安全!

  Current payment tools such as Internet payment and bank card payment are all bound with traditional bank accounts, easy to leak personal account information. Digital currency has no connection with bank accounts, and cryptographic design is applied in all the aspects of currency circulation. Oh, how safe it is!

7. 央行数字货币有助于人民币国际化。

 Central bank DCEP is conducive to the RMB internationalization.

 

 

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(请点击顶部蓝色"杨老师汉学"阅读更多)

There are 3 sections in "JYangSinology"

(Please click the blue"JYangSinology" 

  on the top and read more)

1.教学栏Teaching section

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基本句型Sentence paterns

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时政汉语Current Affairs Chinese2

 

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关于本公众号About JYangSinology

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学习汉语的课堂;了解中国的窗口

A Classroom for Chinese Learning;

A Window for Knowing China

 Central bank DC/EP is conducive to the RMB internationalization.