关于新冠病毒溯源

                                   About the origin of COVID-19

同一首歌 The same song


天使的身影 Figure of Angels

我们在一起 We are one


时政汉语-新冠病毒-(续三十八)

-关于新冠病毒溯源

Current Affairs Chinese - Novel Coronavirus (continued XXXVIII)

-About the origin of COVID-19

 

 

一.词语学习 Words to learn

虚xū假jiǎ信xìn息xī大dà流liú行xínɡ infodemic

扑pū朔shuò迷mí离lí bewildering/too complicated and confusing to tell the truth

仁rén者zhě见jiàn仁rén、智zhì者zhě见jiàn智zhì Different people have different opinions (Benevolence shows benevolence, while the wise shows wisdom)

不bú要yào轻qīnɡ信xìn Don’t trust the obvious.

眼yǎn见jiàn为wéi实shí Seeing is believing.

实shí事shì求qiú是shì call a spade a spade/seek truth from facts/realistically

污wū名mínɡ化huà stigmatization

谣yáo言yán rumor

溯sù源yuán trace back to the origin

科kē学xué举jǔ证zhènɡ scientific proof

不bù确què定dìnɡ性xìnɡ uncertainty

海hǎi鲜xiān seafood

猜cāi测cè guess/conjecture/speculation

推tuī论lún inference

进jìn化huà evolve/evolution

祖zǔ先xiān ancestor/forefather

触chù发fā trigger

驳bó斥chì refute

记jì者zhě reporter/journalist

被bèi判pàn入rù狱yù sentenced to prison

时shí报bào Times

承chénɡ认rèn admit/confess

阴yīn谋móu conspiracy

生shēnɡ化huà武wǔ器qì biochemical weapon

炭tàn疽jū anthrax

泄xiè漏lòu leak/leakage

事shì故ɡù accident

罪zuì行xínɡ offense/crime

白bái宫ɡōnɡ White House

中zhōnɡ央yānɡ情qínɡ报bào局jú Central Intelligence Agency(CIA)

公ɡōnɡ约yuē convention/treaty

禁jìn止zhǐ forbid/prohibit

核hé武wǔ器qì nuclear weapons

贫pín铀yóu弹dàn depleted uranium bomb

凝nínɡ固ɡù汽qì油yóu弹dàn napalm

社shè区qū疫yì情qínɡ防fánɡ控kònɡ community-based epidemic prevention and control

封fēnɡ城chénɡ lockdown of a city

高ɡāo、中zhōnɡ、低dī风fēnɡ险xiǎn地dì区qū high-, medium- and low-risk areas

自zì我wǒ隔ɡé离lí self-quarantine

保bǎo持chí社shè交jiāo距jù离lí social distancing

健jiàn康kānɡ码mǎ health QR codecode

应yīnɡ收shōu尽jìn收shōu、应yīnɡ治zhì尽jìn治zhì admitting all suspected and confirmed cases for treatment

集jí中zhōnɡ拉lā网wǎnɡ式shì排pái查chá massive screening of potential virus carriers

流liú行xínɡ病bìnɡ学xué调diào查chá epidemiological investigation

健jiàn康kānɡ申shēn报bào declaration of health information

无wú症zhènɡ状zhuànɡ感ɡǎn染rǎn者zhě asymptomatic patients

早zǎo发fā现xiàn、早zǎo报bào告ɡào、早zǎo隔ɡé离lí、早zǎo治zhì疗liáo early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early diagnosis

中zhōnɡ西xī医yī结jié合hé combined use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine

方fānɡ舱cānɡ医yī院yuàn fangcang shelter hospitals

心xīn理lǐ疏shū导dǎo psychological counseling

在zài线xiàn诊zhěn疗liáo online diagnosis and treatment


二. 关于新冠病毒溯源About the origin of novel coronaviruses


在人类历史上,病毒起源的真相从来都是扑朔迷离,因为病毒溯源是个科学难题,存在不确定性,所以新冠病毒的起源也可能永远无解。


不过,我们从语言学习(时政汉语)的角度,还是尽力实事求是地梳理一下现有的线索(包括基本知识和各种推论、猜测甚至谣言)。至于能够得出什么推论,则“仁者见仁、智者见智”,考验我们的不再是语言问题,而是智慧和判断力。


梳理之前,杨老师送给大家两句话,一是“眼见不一定为实”,一是“不要轻信显而易见的表象”。


Throughout human history, the truth about the origin of viruses has always been confusing, because traceability is a scientific puzzle with uncertainty, so the origin of novel coronaviruses may never be solved. 

Hevertheless, we will try to sort out realistically the existing clues (including basics and various inferences, speculations and even rumors) from the perspective of language learning (current affairs Chinese). As for what inferences can be drawn, "different people have different ideas", and it is no longer a matter of language, but of wisdom and judgment that is the trial we are facing. 

Before sorting out, JYang gives two sentences to everyone, "Seeing is not necessarily believing", and "Don't trust the obvious."

 

用纸条之类遮住中间白色部分,上下的颜色是否变得一样了?W

ill the upper and lower colors become the same when covering the middle white part with a paper strip or the like? 

 

                                                     (一)

1. 理论上,病毒溯源需要“科学举证”。第一步按照科赫法则找到病原体,第二步确定病毒的天然宿主。 

Theoretically, virus origin tracing requires "scientific proof". The first step is to find the pathogen according to Koch's law, and the second step is to determine the natural host of viruses. 

2. “科学举证”包括两类,即:生物学证据包括病因学、临床医学和流行病学等证据;分子生物学证据,包括基因组测序、抗体检测等。  

"Scientific proof" is of two types: biological proof including etiology, clinical medicine and epidemiology, etc., and molecular biological proof, including genome sequencing, antibody detection, etc .

 3. 流行病学调查需要找到“零号病人”。 

Epidemiological investigation needs to find "patient zero". 

4. 寻找零号病人十分困难甚至是不可能的。 Finding patient zero is very difficult or even impossible. 

以在美国爆发的艾滋病为例。1980年10月到1981年5月,在美国洛杉矶出现最早的五名艾滋病患者,2人死亡。直到8年后的1988年,科学家发现15岁美国少年在1968年便检测为HIV阳性。 18年后的1998年,科学家又在刚果首都金沙萨发现1959年的含有HIV-1的血液样本。这是追溯到的最早的艾滋病病人”,但不一定是“零号病人”。 再举一例。1918年爆发的“西班牙流感”,曾造成全球数千万人死亡,但很久以后的研究表明首个感染者很可能是来自美国堪萨斯州军营的一名士兵。 而2009年4月15日美国爆发的H1N1流感大流行,快速蔓延到214个国家与地区,导致近20万人死亡。而最早的已知病例却是2009年3月9日墨西哥韦拉克鲁斯市格罗利亚的一名五岁孩子。 

Take the AIDS outbreak in the United States for example. From October 1980 to May 1981, the first five AIDS patients appeared in Los Angeles, USA, and two died. Until 8 years later, in 1988, scientists discovered that 15-year-old American boy Robert Rayford was tested HIV positive in 1968. Eighteen years later, in 1998, scientists discovered a blood sample containing HIV-1 in Kinshasa, capital of Congo, in 1959. This is the earliest AIDS patient traced back, but not necessarily the "patient zero". Let’s see another example. The "Spanish flu" broke out in 1918 and caused tens of millions of deaths worldwide, but a long time later research showed that the first infected person was probably a soldier from the Kansas military camp in the United States. And the H1N1 influenza pandemic that broke out in the United States on April 15, 2009 quickly spread to 214 countries and regions, causing nearly 200,000 deaths. The earliest known case was a five-year-old child in Gloria, Veracruz, Mexico, on March 9, 2009. 

5. 病毒溯源最直接和重要的手段是调查动物和病毒的分布。例如,撒哈拉中部和南部非洲地区的果蝠可以携带埃博拉病毒,因此科学家推测埃博拉出血热很可能来源于果蝠; 再如,2013年在中华菊头蝠中发现了类似非典冠状病毒,与人类非典冠状病毒基因组序列有96%的相似性,这才基本揭示非典冠状病毒的天然宿主是中华菊头蝠。 

The most direct and important means of virus origin tracing is to investigate the distribution of animals and viruses. For example, fruit bats in central Sahara and southern Africa can carry Ebola viruses, so scientists speculate that Ebola haemorrhagic fever is likely to originate from fruit bats; For another example. in 2013, a SARS-like coronavirus was found in Chinese rhinolophus bats, with 96% similarity to the human SARS coronavirus genome sequence, which basically revealed that the natural host of SARS coronavirus is Chinese rhinolophus bat. 

6. 现有证据表明新冠病毒起源自动物而非人为制造。美国斯克里普斯研究所等机构参与的国际团队3月17日在英国《自然·医学》杂志上报告说,他们分析比对包括新冠病毒在内的多种冠状病毒基因组数据认为,新冠病毒是人类基因工程所无法达到的。 

Existing evidence indicates that novel coronavirus originated from animals rather than artificially produced one. The international team participated by the Scripps Research Institute and other institutions of the United States reported in the British "Nature Medicine" on March 17th that they analyzed and compared the genome data of multiple coronaviruses, including the novel coronavirus, and concluded that the novel coronavirus is beyond the reach of human genetic engineering. 

7. 蝙蝠最可能是自然界中的贮主,至于中间宿主则不得而知。蝙蝠是唯一会飞的哺乳动物。《自然》期刊上的研究报告认为,被走私到中国的马来亚穿山甲可能是新型冠状病毒的潜在宿主。 B

ats are most likely to be the reservoir in nature, and the intermediate host remians unknown. Bats are the only mammals that can fly. A research report in the journal Nature suggests that the Malayan pangolin smuggled into China may be a potential host for novel coronaviruses. 

8. 武汉市金银潭医院副院长1月24日刊登在《柳叶刀》的研究显示,最早确诊的41例新冠肺炎病例中只有27例去过海鲜市场,因而推断病毒源头不一定来自海鲜市场,从而引发大量猜测。 

A study published in the "Lancet" by the deputy director of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital on January 24 showed that only 27 of the 41 newly diagnosed cases of COVID-19 had been to the seafood market, so it was inferred that the origin of the viruses was not necessarily from the seafood market , which caused a lot of speculation. 

 

                                                                   (二)

9. 被称为“病毒猎手”的美国哥伦比亚大学梅尔曼公共卫生学院教授维尔特·伊恩·利普金表示,既然新冠病毒与海鲜市场可能没有直接联系,也许可以推论该市场发生的是“二次传播”,而病毒在早些时候已开始扩散。 

Wilt Ian Lipkin, a professor at Merman School of Public Health at Columbia University, known as the "virus hunter," said that since the novel coronavirus may not be directly connected to the seafood market, it may be inferred that what happened in this market was "secondary transmission", and viruses had begun to spread earlier.

武汉华南海鲜市场
Wuhan Huanan seafood market


10. 中国西双版纳热带植物园等机构研究人员分析了四大洲12个国家的93个新冠病毒样本的基因组数据,发现其中包含58种单倍型,与华南海鲜市场有关联的患者样本单倍型都是H1或其衍生类型,而H3、H13和H38等更“古老”的单倍型来自华南海鲜市场之外,从而推论华南海鲜市场的新冠病毒是从其他地方传入的。 美国杜兰大学医学院教授罗伯特·加里也表示,武汉的那个海鲜市场“不是该病毒的源头”,应该还有更早的起源。 

Researchers from Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and other institutions in China analyzed the genomic data of 93 novel coronavirus samples from 12 countries on four continents and found that they contained 58 haplotypes. The haplotypes of patient samples associated with the South China seafood market were all H1 or its derivatives, while the "older" haplotypes such as H3, H13, and H38 came from outside the South China seafood market, so it could be inferred that the novel coronaviruses from the South China seafood market were introduced from other places. Robert Gary, a professor at Tulane University School of Medicine, also said that the seafood market in Wuhan "is not the origin of viruses" and there should be an earlier origin. 

11. 美国哥伦比亚大学和哈佛大学研究团队2月18日在bioRxiv上发表论文《重组和融合进化导致2019年武汉冠状病毒的出现》指出,通过对病毒基因的研究发现,2019年的新冠病毒最早可能在2009年就通过重组,并在此后通过融合进化成今日的新冠病毒。 研究团队对整个基因组谱系进行比较后发现,新冠病毒与RaTG13病毒处于同一进化枝,而人类SARS病毒则在另一个分支上。 

The research team of Columbia University and Harvard University published a paper "Recombination and convergent evolution led to the emergence of 2019 Wuhan coronavirus" in BioRxiv on February 18. The gene research found that the novel coronavirus in 2019 may be reconstructed as early as 2009, and thereafter evolved into the novel coronaviruses today through convergence. The research team compared the entire genome spectrum and found that novel coronaviruses and RaTG13 viruses were in the same evolutionary clade, while the human SARS viruses are on another branch.

RBD的时间发展谱系,包括RaTG13病毒、3个新冠病毒序列(红色),6个蝙蝠SARS病毒序列(黑色)和9个人类SARS病毒序列(蓝色)。推论表明至少在11年前(以红色圆点突出显示),甚至是在28年前(蓝色圆点)就可能进行过一次重组,因而推断至迟2009年便已经产生了RaTG13病毒和新冠病毒“共同祖先”的重组。 The temporal development spectrum of RBD includes RaTG13 virus, 3 novel coronavirus sequences (red), 6 bat SARS virus sequences (black) and 9 human SARS virus sequences (blue). The inference shows that at least 11 years ago (highlighted with red dots), and even 28 years ago (blue dots), a reorganization could have already been occurred, so it is inferred that reorganization of "common ancestor" of RaTG13 virus and novel coronavirus could have been produced as early as 2009 . 

12. 发表在《自然医学》网站上的研究表明,新冠病毒与在蝙蝠中发现的冠状病毒有96%的类似性,表面蛋白的突变可能是触发这次大流行的原因。这种病毒的较弱版本可能已经在人群中传播了数年甚至几十年。

 Research published on the "Natural Medicine" website shows that novel coronaviruses are 96% similar to the coronaviruses found in bats, and that mutations in surface proteins may be the trigger for this pandemic. Weaker version of these viruses may have been circulating through the population for years or even decades.

13. 法国病毒学家蒙坦耶宣称,引爆这次疫情的新冠病毒应是武汉实验室“研制艾滋病疫苗的意外产物”。不过,法国政府立即在路透社网站上予以驳斥。 French virologist Luc Montagnier claimed that novel coronaviruses that triggered the outbreak should be the "accidental product of the development of an AIDS vaccine" at the Wuhan laboratory. However, the French government immediately rejected it on the Reuters website.

 

武汉病毒研究所Wuhan virus institute


注 Note

上述所说武汉实验室是根据2004年法国与中国签署的一项协议和法国前外交部长米歇尔·巴尼耶签署的一项法国法令,两国在武汉所建立的生物安全级别最高(四级)的传染病研究实验室,即武汉P4实验室,用以研究传染病病毒的来源。该实验室始终与美国实验室保持密切合作,例如美国得克萨斯大学加尔韦斯顿国家实验室。全球仅有50所达到4级最高安全级别的实验室。 

The above-mentioned Wuhan Laboratory is under an agreement signed between France and China in 2004 and a French decree signed by former French Minister of Foreign Affairs Michelle Barnier. The two countries established the highest biosecurity level (Level IV) Infectious Disease Research Laboratory in Wuhan, Wuhan P4 Laboratory, to study the origin of infectious disease viruses. The laboratory has always maintained close cooperation with American laboratories, such as the Galveston National Laboratory der University of Texas (USA). There are only 50 laboratories in the world that have reached the highest security at level IV. 

14. 2020年1月出现推论说新冠病毒是人工研发的生化武器。《华盛顿邮报》作者乔希·罗金载文称“新冠病毒来自武汉病毒实验室”。 但是科学界多次否定这个说法。美国调查性报道网站“灰色地带”也对此予以反驳,并揭露乔希·罗金多次在网络上编造假新闻,并将其比作《纽约时报》记者朱迪思•米勒。2003年某国以朱迪思•米勒编造的伊拉克拥有大规模杀伤性武器的虚假消息发动了对伊战争,随后骗子朱迪思•米勒也被判入狱。

 In January 2020, an inference emerged that the novel coronavirus was an artificially developed biochemical weapon. "Washington Post" author Josh Rogin claimed that "the novel coronavirus is from Wuhan Virus Laboratory". But the scientific community has repeatedly denied this claim. The US investigative reporting site "The Gray Zone" also refuted this, and revealed that Josh Rogin invented fake news and stories on internet many times, comparing him to "New York Times" reporter Judith Miller. In 2003, a country fabricated Judith Miller's false news that Iraq owned weapons of mass destruction and launched a war against Iraq. Subsequently, the liar Judith Miller was sentenced to prison.

15. 韩国邪教统一教会旗下的报纸《华盛顿时报》1月24日刊登一则新闻称:“冠状病毒可能起源于与中国生物武器计划相关的实验室。” 这一消息的来源则是以色列军队情报部门的前陆军中尉丹尼•索汉姆。索汉姆是这样说的:“冠状病毒在该研究所被研究且有可能正被储存在那里”。不过他也承认“没有证据或迹象表明发生了这种事情。

Washington Times, a newspaper owned by the cult Unification Church of South Korea, published a story on January 24 stating: "Coronaviruses may have originated in a laboratory linked to the Chinese biological weapons program." The source of this story was from the Israeli military intelligence Service former lieutenant Danny Shoham. Soham put it this way: "Coronaviruses are being studied at the institute and may be being stored there" , but he also admitted that "there is no evidence or indication that this has happened." 

16. 印度理工学院9名研究人员发表论文,暗示新型冠状病毒来源于武汉病毒研究所实验室。但随后又将论文撤回。 

Nine researchers from Indian Institute of Technology published a paper suggesting that novel coronaviruses originated from the laboratory of Wuhan Virus Research Institute. But then the paper was withdrawn. 

17. 国际知名学术期刊《美国科学院院报》(PNAS)4月8日发表一篇由英国和德国学者共同撰写的论文《SARS-CoV-2基因组的系统进化网络分析》,第一作者为剑桥大学的Peter Forster博士。 

An internationally renowned academic journal, the Proceedings of the American Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on 8 April published a paper co-authored by British and German scholars, "Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes", and the first author is Dr. Peter Forster of Cambridge University.

 

来自 from
https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/covid-19-genetic-network-analysis-provides-snapshot-of-pandemic-origins

论文中研究人员按照进化关系,使用了160个完整的病毒基因样本,将新冠病毒变种分为A、B、C三类,并利用基因网络技术,他们重建了新冠病毒变异与进化的早期传播路径。 

In the paper, the researchers utilized 160 complete viral gene samples, according to the evolutionary relationship, to classify the novel coronavirus variants into three categories, A, B, and C. With gene network technology, they reconstructed the early transmission pathways of the novel coronavirus mutation and evolution . 

A类和从蝙蝠、穿山甲身上提取的病毒最为相似,被称为“爆发根源”的原始类型,更多存在于美国和澳大利亚受感染者,其中早期的美国病例有在武汉旅行的历史; 

A类病毒的变异体即B类毒株是中国境内的主要类型,传播最广泛; 

C类在欧洲大规模传播,在法国、意大利、瑞典和英国的早期病患中都有发现,在中国的香港、新加坡、韩国也出现此类型,但在中国大陆没有出现过该类型病毒。 

Type A is most similar to the original type of viruses derived from bats and pangolins, known as the "root of the outbreak". It is more commonly found in infected people in the United States and Australia. Among the early American cases, there were experiences of traveling to Wuhan ; 

Type B, type A virus variants, is the dominant type in China and were most widely spread; 

Type C was widely spread in Europe and was found in early patients in France, Italy, Sweden and the United Kingdom. This type also appeared in Hong Kong of China, Singapore and South Korea, but not at all in mainland of China. 

研究中发现的证据显示,新冠病毒最初感染人类的时间大约在2019年9月13日至2019年12月7日这个区间。 

Evidence found in the study suggests that novel coronaviruses initially infected humans between about September 13, 2019 and December 7, 2019.

自《美国科学院院报》官网From official website of PNAS

 

自《自然》杂志官网 From official website of Nature

 

18. 据路透社罗马4月24日报道,布鲁诺·凯斯勒基金会对首批已知病例进行了研究,并从随后的传染速度中得出了明确的结论:1月份甚至可能在更早之前在意大利就有人感染了,而且可能是由一群人而不是一个人带到意大利的。 

As reported by Reuters in Rome on April 24, the Bruno Kessler Foundation studied the first known cases and drew a clear conclusion from the subsequent rate of infection: some people might have been infected in Italy even as early as in January or even earlier, and the infection might have been spread to Italy by a group of people rather than a single person.

 

19. 美国疾控中心(CDC)主任雷德菲尔德3月11日在回答“在美国,人们可能表面上是死于流感,实际上却可能死于新冠病毒,对吧?”问题时,他的回答是:“迄今为止,一些病例的诊断情况就是这样的”。 对此,美国疾控中心承认:“部分流感确实为新冠病毒感染者”,并掌握了部分“被误诊为流感或其他疾病,实际上是新冠肺炎”的病例。但是,至今美国CDC仍未公布这些病例的详细情况,引发人们猜测。 

Robert Redfield, director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), answered this way: "This is just how some of the cases were diagnosed so far." on March 11 to the quetion "In the United States, people may seem to die ostensibly from flu, but they may actually die from novel coronaviruses, right?" In response, CDC admitted that "Some flu cases were indeed the novel coronavirus infection", and they collected information on some cases "misdiagnosed as influenza or other diseases that were actually novel crown pneumonia". However, to date the US CDC has not yet released any details of these cases, which has caused people to speculate. 

20. 2019年6月27日,CDC突然拒绝继续给一些无症状的60岁以上的人接种疫苗,要想接种需要报告是否有“肺炎相关症状”。为什么突然必须报告是否有肺炎症状?这引起了人们的猜测。 

On June 27, 2019, CDC abruptly refused to continue to vaccinate some asymptomatic people over the age of 60. In order to be vaccinated, they needed to report whether they had "pneumonia-related symptoms". Why was it suddenly necessary to report whether there were any symptoms of pneumonia? This caused speculation. 

21. 美国儿科急诊领域专家彼得在推特上表示,自己在1月得了“流感”,但这次检测中,他查出了新冠抗体:“一月份的时候,我病得很重(像流感一样,但更严重),两天没睡,几乎要住进急诊室。今天我检查了我的新冠病毒抗体状况……IgG+(指过去感染过)。心情复杂……明天会再测一次。” 

Peter Antevy, an expert in the field of emergency pediatrics in the United States, said on Twitter that he got the "flu" in January, but in this test, he found a new antibody to the COVID-19: "I was severely sick in January (like flu, but more severe), did not sleep for two days, almost sent to the emergency room. Today I checked the status of my COVID-19 antibody ... IgG + (meaning I was infected in the past). I am in a complex mood ... will be tested one more time tomorrow."

                                  

22. 美国“记者”乔治·韦伯说,病毒可能是来自一个到武汉参与世界军人运动会的一名美军单车手。此说法被称为阴谋论。 

American "reporter" George Webb said that COVID019 may come from a US military cyclist who had once travelled to Wuhan for the World Military Games. This claim is called conspiracy theory. 

23. 另一个典型的阴谋论早在一月下旬出现在“脸书”上,声称5G传播新冠病毒:5G可以抑制免疫系统;5G技术以某种方式传播新冠病毒。 

Another typical conspiracy theory appeared on “Facebook” in late January, claiming 5G will spread COVID-19: 5G can suppress the immune system; 5G technology spreads novel coronaviruses in some way. 

24. 有人声称病毒是以色列实验室制造的。 

Some claim that novel coronaviruses were produced by an Israeli laboratory. 

25. 还有人造谣说病毒是从比尔·盖茨疫苗研制的过程中泄露出来的。 

There is also a rumor that the viruses were leaked during the development of the Bill Gates vaccine. 

26. 纽约州州长的弟弟、美国有线电视新闻网的主持人克里斯·科莫感染新冠病毒后推测:根据此前曾有美国人自称得过新冠肺炎,从去年10月起美国就出现了新冠肺炎病例。 科莫还提到其妻子的一个猜测:“我们至少两个孩子在过去的几个月中感染过新冠病毒。为什么?我也不知道,但他们有过非典型的鼻窦、发烧和嗜睡症状。我认为,我们将发现,从去年10月起,新冠病毒就出现在了这个国家(美国),那时已有病例。” 

New York State Governor ’s younger brother, CNN host Chris Cuomo, after infecting COVID-19, speculated: based on previous reports of Americans claiming to have been infected novel coronavirus pneumonia, there should have been cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia in the United States since October last year. Cuomo also mentioned a speculation by his wife: "At least two of our children have been infected with novel coronaviruses in the last few months. Why? I don't know, but they have had atypical sinus, fever and lethargy symptoms. I think we’re going to learn that coronaviruses have been in this country since, like, October, that there have been cases."

 

 

27. 美国《旧金山纪事报》4月22日报道,美国加利福尼亚州圣克拉拉县21日通报,该县2月至3月间在流感季节死于家中的3名居民,尸检结果显示生前感染新冠病毒。而其中死于2月6日的57岁女性很可能在1月初就已经感染新冠病毒。加州州长纽森下令重新评估去年12月的尸检报告。人们怀疑这也许是冰山一角。

San Francisco Chronicle in the United States reported on April 22 that Santa Clara County, California, informed on the 21st that in the county three residents died at home during the flu season from February to March. The autopsy results showed that they were infected with COVID-19 before death. Among them the 57-year-old woman who died on Feb. 6 was likely to have been infected with COVID-19 in early January. California Governor Gavin Newsom ordered a reevaluation of the autopsy report of last December. People suspect this is probably the tip of an iceberg.

 

 

 

 

28. 《纽约时报》援引位于德特里克堡美国陆军医学研究与发展司令部基地内的陆军传染病医学研究所的一份声明说,美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)决定发布“关停命令”,2019年7月停止在德特里克堡所进行的所有研究,理由是该中心并没有“足够完善的系统对其最高安全等级实验室的废水进行净化”。即是说,这家实验室有可能在之前已经“泄露部分病毒”,而该基地的确存有SARS相关冠状病毒。 因此在美国有人怀疑德特里克堡生化研究基地可能是新冠病毒的来源,美国官方至今对此没有公开回应。

New York Times quoted a statement from the Army ’s Institute of Infectious Disease Medicine in the base of the US Army Medical Rearch and Development Command at Fort Detrick, which said that CDC decided to issue a "Shutdown Order" to hault all research conducted at Fort Detric in July 2019, on the grounds that the center did not have a "sufficiently sophisticated system to decontaminate wastewater from its highest security level laboratory." That is, it was possible that this laboratory "had leaked some viruses" before, and the base did contain SARS-related coronaviruses. Therefore, there is suspicion in the United States that Fort Detrick biochemical research base may be the origin of the novel coronaviruses. But there has been no public response from the US officials to this so far.

 

 

注 Note:1. 关于特里克堡生化研究基地About Fort Detrick Biochemical Research Base

据维基百科:历史上,迪特里克堡于1943年至1969年曾是美国从事生物武器研究计划的中心。2002年4月,该基地曾发生炭疽泄漏事故。
According to Wikipedia: Historically, Fort Dietrich was the center of the US biological weapons research program from 1943 to 1969. In April 2002, an anthrax leakage accident occurred at the base.

美国日军细菌战罪行调查委员会主席尹集钧曾调查发现该基地生化实验室收留了二次大战中日军731生化部队的专家,这些专家在该基地工作长达20年。其中石井四郎被聘请为德特里克堡的高级顾问,并将那里的一栋大楼命名为731,供石井四郎进行细菌试验研究使用。2009年还曾发生过健康赔偿诉讼事件。

“Yin Jijun, chairman of the Japanese Army Bacterial Warfare Crime Investigation Committee of the United States, investigated and found that the biochemical laboratory at this base had recruited experts from the Japanese Army's 731 biochemical troop in World War II, who had worked at the base for 20 years. Among them, Ishii Shiro was appoined as a senior consultant at Fort Detrick base and a building there was named as 731 for Ishii Shiro to carry out bacterial experiments and research. There was also a lawsuit for health compensation in 2009.


“我们人民”网站(又称白宫联署,是美国白宫的联署网站,于2011年9月22日开通)列举了近半年发生的一系列“引人注目的”事件:


·2019年7月,位于德特里克堡的美国陆军最高机密传染病医学研究所被关闭;

·2019年8月,一场大规模的“流感”造成(美国)10000多人死亡;

·2019年10月,美国在中央情报局副局长的参与下组织了2019全球流行病演习;

·2019年11月,中国发现不明原因肺炎;

·2020年2月,世界暴发流行病;

·2020年3月,有关德特里克堡关闭的大量英语新闻报道被删除,显示“ 404未找到” "

 

We the People" website (also known as the White House co-sponsorship website, opened on September 22, 2011) lists a series of "conspicuous" events that have occurred in the past six months:


- In July 2019, the US Army's Top Secret Infectious Disease Medical Research Institute in Fort Detrick was closed;

- In August 2019, a massive "influenza pandemic" killed more than 10,000 people (in the United States);

- In October 2019, the United States organized the 2019 Global Epidemiology Exercise with the participation of the Deputy Director of the CIA;

- In November 2019, unexplained pneumonia was detected in China;

· In February 2020, an pandemic broke in the world;

· In March 2020, a large number of English-language news reports about the closure of Fort Detrick were deleted, showing "404 not found"

 

2. 关于生化武器  About biological and chemical weapons

在人类的近代史上,特别是第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战及之后的几次战争中,曾有国家毫无人性地研发并在战争中使用了生物武器、化学武器、放射性武器甚至核武器、准核武器的贫铀弹、凝固汽油弹等。

In the modern history of mankind, particularly in the First World War and World War II as well as the wars later, a few countries dehumanizingly developed and used biological weapons, chemical weapons, radiological weapons, and even nuclear weapons, quasi-nuclear depleted uranium bombs, napalm napalm, etc.


遗憾的是,有一个大国在2001年退出了《禁止生物武器公约》从而可以拒绝执行《禁止生物武器公约》。从此以后,这个国家便成了世界大国中唯一一个可以自由研发生物武器的国家,而其军方的生化研究所也与其他国家的病毒研究所可以具有根本不同的性质。


Regrettably, a superpower withdrew from the Biological Weapons Convention in 2001, thus allowing itself to refuse to implement the BWC. Since then, this country has become the only great power in the world that can freely develop biological weapons, and its military's biochemical research institute can be of a fundamentally different nature from virus research institutes of other countries. 

 

希望全人类团结起来,远离战争,远离大规模杀伤性武器,战胜我们共同的敌人-病毒!


It is hoped that all mankind will unite, stay away from war, away from weapons of mass destruction, and defeat our common enemy - virus!

 

 

为方便朋友们查阅本公众号"杨老师汉学”的内容,杨老师特地将所发布的原创内容罗列如下,这样朋友们可以一览无余,点击即可观看。

  In order to  facilitate my friends to check the content of this public number "JYangSinology", JYang has specially listed the original contents released as follows, so that you can view the whole just at a glance. Click and read them.


1.教学栏Teaching section


课堂辅导Our classes

“经济阅读”课堂辅导(一)Our Course"Economy Text Reading"(I)

“经济阅读”课堂辅导(二)Our Course"Economy Text Reading"(II)

“经济阅读”课堂辅导(三)Our Course"Economy Text Reading"(III)

“经济阅读”课堂辅导(四)Our Course"Economy Text Reading"(IV)

“经济阅读”课堂辅导(五)Our Course"Economy Text Reading"(V)

“经济阅读”课堂辅导(六)Our Course"Economy Text Reading"(VI)

“经济阅读”课堂辅导(七)Our Course"Economy Text Reading"(VII)

“经济阅读”课堂辅导(八)Our Course"Economy Text Reading"(VIII)

“商务汉语”课堂辅导(一)Our Course"Business Chinese"(I)

“商务汉语”课堂辅导(二)Our Course"Business Chinese"(II)

“商务汉语”课堂辅导(三)Our Course"Business Chinese"(III)

“商务汉语”课堂辅导(四)Our Course"Business Chinese"(IV)

“商务汉语”课堂辅导(五)Our Course"Business Chinese"(V)

“商务汉语”课堂辅导(六)Our Course"Business Chinese"(VI)

“商务汉语”课堂辅导(七)Our Course"Business Chinese"(VII)

“商务汉语”课堂辅导(八)Our Course"Business Chinese"(VIII)


基本句型Sentence paterns

初学者基本句型(一) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (I)

初学者基本句型(二) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (II)

初学者基本句型(三) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (III)

初学者基本句型(四) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (IV)

初学者基本句型(五) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (V)

初学者基本句型(六) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (VI)

初学者基本句型(七) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (VII)

初学者基本句型(八) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (VIII)

初学者基本句型(九) Basic Sentence Patterns for Beginners (IX)


专业汉语Professional Chinese财经汉语(一)投资配额取消Finance and economics(I)quota limits abandoned财经汉语(二)北京大兴机场Finance & Economics(II) Beijing Daxing Airport

财经汉语(三)大兴机场(续)Finance & Economics(III)Daxing Airport (Added)

医学汉语(一)癌症治疗Medical Chinese(I) Cancer Treatment

医学汉语(二)肺癌Medical Chinese(II)Lung Cancer

医学汉语(三)基因检测Chinese(III)Genetic testing

医学汉语(四)癌症疗法Medical Chinese(IV) Cancer Therapies

医学汉语(五)卵巢癌治疗Medical Chinese(V)Ovarian Cancer Treatment

医学汉语(六)小细胞肺癌Medical Chinese(VI)Small Cell Lung Cancer


时政汉语1 Current Affairs Chinese1时政汉语(一)特朗普发推与美股下跌Chinese for Current Affairs(I) Trump Tweets

时政汉语(二)“愤怒的环保公主(Chinese for Current Affairs(II)"Angry Princess"

时政汉语(三)六头大象互救时丧生CurrentAffairs Six elephants died saving others

时政汉语(四)华为总裁任正非Current Affair(IV)Ren Zhengfei, Huawei CEO

去香港旅行?Traveling to Hong Kong?

“荷兰”改名“Holland” to be dropped

新冠病毒-疫苗、特效药、免疫力 COVID19 -Vaccines, specific drugs, immunity

新冠病毒-神秘的中医 COVID19 -Mysterious Traditional Chinese Medicine

新冠病毒-来之不易的经验 COVID19 -Hard-earned experiences

新冠病毒-世界加油!COVID19 -Stay strong, the world!

波兰加油!Stay strong, Poland! Solidarni z Polską!

我是口罩 I am a face mask

疫苗-人类的期盼 Vaccine-the hope of humanity


时政汉语2 Current Affairs Chinese2

新型冠状病毒 Novel Coronavirus新型冠状病毒(续) Novel Coronavirus (continued)


新型冠状病毒(续二) Novel Coronavirus (continued II)

新型冠状病毒(续三) Novel Coronavirus (continued III)

新型冠状病毒(续四)  白衣天使 Novel Coronavirus (continued IV) Angels in white

新型冠状病毒(续五)我们一起度过这次难关 Let's get through this difficulty Novel Coronavirus(continued V)


新型冠状病毒(续六)  消毒 Novel Coronavirus (continued VI) Disinfection/Sterilization

新型冠状病毒(续七) Novel Coronavirus(continued VII)

新型冠状病毒(续八) 人体是怎样抗击病毒的 Novel Coronavirus (continued VIII) The way how human body fights viruses

新型冠状病毒(续九)  在华同学和朋友们使用的查询工具 Novel Coronavirus (continued IX) Query tools for students and friends in China

新型冠状病毒(续十) 信心,理解,尊重 Novel Coronavirus (continued X) Confidence, Understanding, Respect

新型冠状病毒(续十一) 武汉加油!中国加油!Novel Coronavirus (continued XI) Come on, Wuhan! Come on, China!

新型冠状病毒(续十二) 加油,武汉!加油,中国!Novel Coronavirus (continued XII) Come on, Wuhan! Jiayou, China!

新型冠状病毒(续十三) 中国加油!加油,世界!Novel Coronavirus (continued XIII) Jiayou, China! Come on, the world!

新型冠状病毒(续十四)大武汉,挺住!Novel Coronavirus (continued XIV) Great Wuhan, stay strong!


新型冠状病毒(续十五) 湖北,挺住!Novel Coronavirus (continued XV) Stay strong, Hubei!

新型冠状病毒(续十六) 加油,日本! Novel Coronavirus (continued XVI) Stay strong, Japan!

新型冠状病毒(续十七) 熊猫为你加油 Novel Coronavirus (continued XVII) Panda cheers for you

新型冠状病毒(续十八)零号病人 Novel Coronavirus(continued XVIII)Patient Zero

新型冠状病毒(续十九) 中西医结合Novel Coronavirus -Traditional and Western Medicine

新型冠状病毒(续二十) Novel Coronavirus(continued XX)

新型冠状病毒(续二十一) Novel Coronavirus(continued XXI)

新型冠状病毒-全球疫情 Novel Coronavirus-Epidemic in the world

新冠病毒-人类的反省 Novel Coronavirus-Human's introspection

新冠病毒-人类与动物 Novel Coronavirus-Mankind and animals

新冠病毒-一个人与一座城 Novel Coronavirus-One person and one city

新冠病毒-恐慌?Novel Coronavirus-Panic?

新冠病毒-个人防护 Novel Coronavirus-Personal Protection

新冠病毒-武汉封城历程 Novel Coronavirus -Lockdown Experience in Wuhan

新冠病毒-三类抗疫模式 Novel Coronavirus -3 Styles of Fighting Epidemic

“在一起”献给全世界"Together" Dedicated to the world


2.文化栏Culture section
中国知识About China中国-波兰友好省市China-Polska Sister Cities & Provinces

西藏拉萨布达拉宫Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet在中国买火车票Buy Train Tickets in China

云南大理 Dali, Yunnan

视界 | 美媒拍摄“洪水也冲不走”的古建筑 海外网友啧啧称奇

李子柒(一) Li Ziqi (I)李子柒(二) Li Ziqi (II)李子柒(三) Li Ziqi (III)李子柒(四) Li Ziqi (IV)

李子柒(五) Li Ziqi (V)

李子柒(六) Li Ziqi(VI)
李子柒(七) Li Ziqi(VII)
武术太极Martial arts & taiji24式太极拳24-style Taijiquan

32式太极拳32-style Taijiquan

初级剑术Primary Swordcraft

一路和二路长拳Routines I & II Changquan

三路长拳Routine III Changquan

太极剑Taiji Sword


成语故事Idioms and stories成语(一)“塞翁失马”Idom(I) "Saiweng Lost His Horse"

成语(二)“刻舟求剑”Idiom(II) "Mark the Boat for Sword"

成语(三)“朝三暮四” Idiom(III) "Change One's Mind Frequently"

成语(四)“邯郸学步” Idiom(IV) "Learn to Walk in Handan"

成语(五)“东施效颦”Idom(V) Blind Imitation with Ludicrous Effection

成语(六)更多 Idioms(VI) More


形象表达Vivid expressions

汉语形象表达(一)Chinese Vivid Expressions(I)

汉语形象表达(二)Chinese Vivid Expressions(II)

汉语形象表达(三)Chinese Vivid Expressions(III)

汉语形象表达(四)Chinese Vivid Expressions(IV)

汉语形象表达(五)Chinese Vivid Expressions(V)

汉语形象表达(六)Chinese Vivid Expressions(VI)

汉语形象表达(七)Chinese Vivid Expressions(VII)

汉语形象表达(八)Chinese Vivid Expressions(VIII)

汉语形象表达(九)Chinese Vivid Expressions(IX)

汉语形象表达(十)Chinese Vivid Expressions(X)

汉语形象表达(十一)Chinese Vivid Expressions(XI)

汉语形象表达(十二)Chinese Vivid Expressions(XII)


诗词歌曲Peoms and songs让我们荡起双桨Let's Sway Twin Oars甜蜜蜜As Sweet as Honey月亮代表我的心The Moon Represents My Heart

歌曲《姑娘我爱你》Song"I Love You Girl"

甜蜜蜜As Sweet as Honey

月亮代表我的心The Moon Represents My Heart

让我们荡起双桨Let's Sway Twin Oars

歌曲“青藏高原”A Song “Qinghai-Tibet Plateau”

歌曲:好一朵美丽的茉莉花A Song: What a Beautiful Jasmin Flower

歌曲“同一首歌”A Song "The Same Song"

最新流行歌曲“说好不哭”The latest pop song "Won't 

歌曲“我和我的祖国”A Song "My Motherland and Me"

歌曲“一条大河”A Song "A Wide River"

诗词(一)王之涣“登鹳雀楼”Poems(I) "Ascending Guanque Tower" by Wang Zhihuan

诗词(二)苏轼“水调歌头”Poems(II)SU Shi – Lyrics to the First Water Melody


3.信息栏Information section


关于汉学
汉语知识Chinese language

象形文字卡通片Cartoon about Hieroglyphics

汉字笔顺知识 About Character Stroke Order

儿化音Rhotic Accent

汉语简繁字的背后(一)Behind simplified and traditional characters (I)

汉语简繁字的背后(二)Behind simplified and traditional characters (II)

汉语简繁字的背后(三)Behind simplified and traditional characters (III)

汉语简繁字的背后(四)Behind simplified and traditional characters (IV)

汉语简繁字的背后(五)Behind simplified and traditional characters (V)


HSK 汉语水平考试 

汉语水平考试(一)HSK (I)

汉语水平考试(二)HSK (II)

汉语水平考试(三)HSK (III)

汉语水平考试(四)HSK (IV)

汉语水平考试(五)HSK (V)

汉语水平考试(六)HSK (VI)

汉语水平考试(七)HSK (VII)

汉语水平考试(八)HSK (VIII)

汉语水平口语考试(九)HSKK (VIII)

汉语水平口语考试(十)HSKK (X)


量词缩略语Measure Word and Abbreviation

初学者量词(一) Measure Words for Beginners(I)

初学者量词(二) Measure Words for Beginners(II)

初学者量词(三) Measure Words for Beginners(III)

初学者量词(四) Measure Words for Beginners(IV)

初学者量词(五) Measure Words for Beginners(V)

初学者量词(六) Measure Words for Beginners(VI)

初学者量词(七) Measure Words for Beginners(VII)

初学者量词(八) Measure Words for Beginners(VIII)

初学者量词(九) Measure Words for Beginners(IX)

英语缩略语中文译名(一)Chinese Translation of English Abbreviations(I)

英语缩略语中文译名(二)Chinese Translation of English Abbreviations(II)

英语缩略语中文译名(三)Chinese Translation of English Abbreviations(III)

英语缩略语中文译名(四)Chinese Translation of English Abbreviations(IV)

英语缩略语中文译名(五)Chinese Translation of English Abbreviations(V)


轻松聊天Free talk

推理智力题 Logic Puzzles

聊一聊“爱”WeChat about”Love”

2019.11.11是什么节日What Day Is 2019.11.11

绕口令1 Tongue Twisters I

圣诞节快乐Merry Christmas

酒 Alcohol/Wine

新年快乐!Happy New Year!

老杨祝你元旦快乐!Lao Yang wishes U a Happy New Year's Day!

 

学习汉语的课堂;了解中国的窗口

A Classroom for Chinese Learning;

A Window for Knowing China