新型冠状病毒(续八) Novel Coronavirus (continued VIII)

 

 

时政汉语-新型冠状病毒(续八

-人体是怎样抗击病毒的

Current Affairs Chinese - Novel Coronavirus (continued VIII)

The wayhow human body fights viruses


 

一.今日疫情 Epidemic situation today

 

2月9日16:10时(北京时),中国确诊新型冠状病毒病例37,278例,死亡病例813例,治愈出院病例2,792例,共有疑似病例28,942例。

 

Until 16:10, Feb. 9 (Beijing Time), 37,278 cases of novel coronavirus were confirmed in China, with 813 died, and 2,792 were cured and discharged, and there are still 28,942 suspected cases.

 

二. 有关词汇 Relevant Words


简jiǎn称chēnɡ abbreviation/short name

传chuán播bō途tú径jìnɡ way of spreading/transmission

飞fēi沫mò droplet

接jiē触chù传chuán播bō contact transmission/spread

气qì溶rónɡ胶jiāo传chuán播bō aerosol transmission/propagation

口kǒu腔qiānɡ oral cavity

鼻bí腔qiānɡ nasal cavity

粘nián膜mó mucosa

蒸zhēnɡ发fā evaporation

迁qiān移yí transfer/migrate/move

悬xuán浮fú levitate/float

核hé酸suān检jiǎn测cè nucleic acid detection

阴yīn性xìnɡ negative (-)

阳yánɡ性xìnɡ positive (+)

呈chénɡ现xiàn present/show

副fù作zuò用yònɡ side effect

治zhì愈yù cured

狡jiǎo猾huá cunning

血xuè管ɡuǎn blood vessel

酶méi enzyme

遗yí传chuán物wù质zhì genetic material

潜qián伏fú期qī incubation/hiden period

咽yān喉hóu throat

气qì管ɡuǎn trachea

支zhī气qì管ɡuǎn bronchus

肺fèi lung

巨jù噬shì细xì胞bāo macrophages

树shù突tū状zhuànɡ细xì胞bāo dendritic cell

免miǎn疫yì系xì统tǒnɡ immune system

咳ké嗽sòu dough

(打dǎ)喷pēn嚏tì sneeze

发fā热rè(发fā烧shāo、高ɡāo烧shāo) fever (high fever)

消xiāo灭miè eliminate/wipe out

异yì常chánɡ abnormal/unsual/extreme

蛋dàn白bái质zhì protein

心xīn脏zānɡ病bìnɡ heart disease/trouble

糖tánɡ尿niào病bìnɡ diabetes

风fēnɡ暴bào storm

复fù制zhì duplicate/reproduce/copy

导dǎo致zhì cause/lead to/result in

纤qiàn维wéi化huà fibrosis

呼hū吸xī衰shuāi竭jié respiratory failure

窒zhì息xī asphyxia

淋lín巴bā结jié lymph nodes

中zhōnɡ性xìnɡ neutral

痊quán愈yù recovery

枯kū萎wěi withered/fade

抗kànɡ体tǐ antibody

恢huī复fù健jiàn康kānɡ restore/regain health

 

 

三.最新消息 The latest news


1. 新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)感染的肺炎暂命名为“新型冠状病毒肺炎”,英文名为”novel coronavirus pnewmonia”,简称“新冠肺炎”,英文简称NCP。

The pneumonia infected by the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is temporarily named as "新型冠状病毒肺炎", "Novel coronavirus pnewmonia" in English, and the abbreviation is "novel coronavirus pneumonia", NCP in English.

 

2. 新冠肺炎的传播途径增加为3条,即直接传播、接触传播和气溶胶传播。


直接传播指通过喷嚏、咳嗽、说话的飞沫导致感染;接触传播指用手接触了表面沉积了飞沫的物品,然后接触了口腔、鼻腔、眼睛等粘膜导致感染;气溶胶传播指说话时排出的飞沫(液滴)混合在空气中在1秒甚至几十微秒内蒸发形成气溶胶,长期悬浮在空气中并可以随空气迁移,传播距离可达数百米甚至更远,被人吸入后导致感染,属于无接触感染。不过一般医用口罩可以阻拦这种气溶胶颗粒。


The transmission modes of novel coronavirus pneumonia have increased to as many as three, namely direct transmission, contact transmission and aerosol transmission. 


Direct transmission refers to infection caused by droplets of sneezing, coughing, or talking; contact transmission refers to contact of objects with droplets deposited on the surface, and then contact of mucous membranes such as oral cavity, nasal cavity, and eyes, to cause infection; aerosol transmission refers to the droplets discharged when talking that are mixed in the air evaporating to form aerosol within 1 second or even tens of microseconds. They are suspended in the air for a long time and can move with the air. The transmission can reach as far as hundreds of meters or even farther, and then they are inhaled by people and make people infected, namely contactless infection. However, general medical masks can block such aerosol particles.

 

3. 现在出现多次(4次甚至以上)检测才能确诊为新冠肺炎的患者,即连续4次核酸检测均为阴性,直到第五次核酸检测才呈阳性。甚至有患者住院上呼吸机后通过肺泡灌洗才检测到新冠病毒核酸呈阳性。

 

Now appear patients confirmed after multiple (4 or more) tests before being diagnosed as "novel coronavirus pneumonia", that is, 4 consecutive nucleic acid tests were negative, and they were not positive until the fifth nucleic acid test. Some patients even received ventilator support in the hospitals and only after alveolar lavage they were positive for the novel coronavirus.

 

4. 抗病毒药物瑞德西韦临床试验目前显示没有出现明显副作用,有望用于治疗新冠病毒肺炎。

 

Clinical experiments of the antiviral drug Remdesivir have shown no significant side effects and is expected to be used in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia.

 

人体免疫系统 

Human immune system

 

冠状病毒的崛起 

The rise of novel coronavirus

 

新型冠状病毒多么狡猾 

How cunning novel coronavirus are

 

四.今天杨老师想和同学们和朋友们说说新冠病毒为什么是可以治愈,而且是在目前尚没有特效药和疫苗的情况下,我们的身体是怎样战胜极为狡猾恶毒的新冠病毒的。

Today, JYang wishes to talk with the classmates and friends about why the novel coronavirus can be cured, and how our bodies defeat the extremely cunning and malicious novel coronavirus in the absence of specific medicines and vaccines.

 

1. 新冠病毒侵入人体后有多么狡猾和恶毒的。

How cunning and malicious the novel coronavirus are when in our bodies.

 

新冠病毒侵入人体后,凭借其血管紧张转化酶2迷惑细胞,与同样含有这种酶的粘膜细胞结合从而侵入细胞内部,然后将自己的遗传物质核糖核酸(RNA)释放到细胞内部进行成千上万次的复制,然后继续感染其他细胞,这就是潜伏期。病毒沿着口鼻粘膜逐渐蔓延到咽喉、气管、支气管最后攻击肺部。

 

After the invasion into the human bodies, the novel coronavirus es cheat cells with their angiotensin-converting enzyme II and combines with mucosal cells that also contain this kind of enzyme so as to intrude the cells, and then releases their own genetic material ribonucleic acid (RNA) into the cells, duplicate themsulves thousands of times, and then continue to infect other cells. This is the incubation period. The virus gradually spread to the throat, trachea and bronchus along the mucous membrane of the mouth and nose, and finally attack the lungs.

 

2. 人体是怎样抗击病毒的

The wayhow human body fights viruses

 

被感染的细胞也会向人体免疫系统发出警报,免疫系统首先派出白细胞对被感染区域进行无差别攻击,杀灭大量病毒和细胞。然后巨噬细胞和树突状细胞继续对病毒攻击,死亡的病毒和细胞会堵塞咽喉和鼻腔,此时需要咳嗽来进行清理。大脑则根据巨噬细胞传递的信息启动人体紧急响应,人体就会出现发热、乏力、嗜睡、浑身酸痛等症状,以利于白细胞攻击病毒。如果是普通病毒,几天内病毒就会被消灭殆尽。

 

Infected cells will send alarm to the body's immune system. The immune system first sends white blood cells to attack the infected area indiscriminately, killing a large number of viruses as well as cells. Then macrophages and dendritic cells continue to attack the viruses, but dead viruses and cells can block the throat and nasal cavity, and at this time coughs are needed to clean up. The brain initiates the human body's emergency response on basis of the information transmitted by the macrophages, and the human body will develop symptoms such as fever, fatigue, lethargy, and soreness in order to help leukocytes attack the viruses. All the common viruses would be killed within a few days.

 

不过新冠病毒异常狡猾,它们利用一种特殊的蛋白质迷惑免疫系统,使得免疫系统上当,开始攻击自己的细胞。于是,如果患者患有心脏病、糖尿病等疾病就会被自己的免疫系统打败导致患者的死亡。此外,也有一些患者由于免疫系统的过激反应造成的细胞因子风暴会造成炎症风暴,导致免疫细胞过度兴奋从而错误地疯狂攻击自身的肺部细胞,导致肺部的纤维化,患者最终因呼吸衰竭而窒息死亡。


However, the novel coronaviruses are very cunning. They deceive and fool the immune system by its special protein, and the cheated immune system start attacking its own cells. Consequently, if the patient has a heart disease, diabetes, or other diseases, the cells will be defeated by their own immune system and die. In addition, some other patients, due to cytokine storms caused by the immune system's overreaction, will cause inflammatory storms, which will lead to excessive excitement of immune cells and falsely attack their own lung cells, causing fibrosis in the lungs. Patients eventually will suffocate to death due to respiratory failure.

 

如果有医护人员的精心护理,帮助患者保持体力维护免疫系统,使得树突状细胞有能力将信息携带给淋巴结,淋巴结的T淋巴细胞和B细胞使新冠病毒失去感染能力,最终被中性粒细胞吞掉,此时患者终于痊愈。大部分T细胞也自行枯萎死亡,部分T细胞则转变为记忆T细胞,B细胞也转变为记忆B细胞并生产抗体,共同防止病毒再次侵入。


死去的细胞也开始重新生长,人体开始恢复健康。


With careful care by medical workers to help patients maintain physical strength and maintain the immune system, dendritic cells will be able to carry information to lymph nodes, then T lymphocytes and B cells of lymph nodes make neo-crown virus incapable of infection, and eventually become neutrophils. After all the viruses are swallowed, the patient finally recover. Most T cells also die on their own, and some T cells are transformed into memory T cells, and B cells are also transformed into memory B cells and produce antibodies to prevent the viruses from invading again.


The dead cells also begin to grow again, and the body begins to recover.



面对新冠病毒,不要恐慌!


No Panic while facing novel coronaviruses!


 

本公众号发布的“新型冠状病毒”

“Novel Coronavirus” 

published in JYangSinology

(请点击查看 Please click and watch)

新型冠状病毒 Novel Coronavirus

新型冠状病毒(续) Novel Coronavirus (continued)

新型冠状病毒(续二) Novel Coronavirus (continued II)

新型冠状病毒(续三) Novel Coronavirus (continued III)

新型冠状病毒(续四) Novel Coronavirus (continued IV)

新型冠状病毒(续五) Novel Coronavirus(continued V)

新型冠状病毒(续六) Novel Coronavirus(continued VI)

新型冠状病毒(续七) Novel Coronavirus(continued VII)



“杨老师汉学”有3个栏目的内容

(请点击顶部蓝色"杨老师汉学"阅读更多)

There are 3 sections in "JYangSinology"

(Please click the blue"JYangSinology" 

  on the top and read more)

1.教学栏Teaching section

课堂辅导Our classes

基本句型Sentence paterns

专业汉语Professional Chinese

汉语量词Measure words

HSK练习 HSK exercises

 

2.文化栏Culture section

中国知识About China

武术太极Martial arts & taiji

成语故事Idioms and stories

形象表达Vivid expressions

诗词歌曲Peoms and songs

 

3.信息栏Information section

关于本公众号About JYangSinology

汉语知识Chinese language

浏览网站Jyang’s website

轻松聊天Free talk

缩略语翻译Abbreviation translation


 

学习汉语的课堂;了解中国的窗口

A Classroom for Chinese Learning;

A Window for Knowing China