回顾新冠疫情诡异的大事记

                      Review of weird events of Covid-19 epidemic

 

时政汉语 -新型冠状病毒(44)
-- 回顾新冠疫情诡异的大事记
Current Affairs Chinese -Novel Coronavirus (44)
--Review of weird events of COVID-19 epidemic

2020无疑是个极不寻常的一年。很多同学和朋友表示希望学习关各个时期新冠病毒事件发展的汉语表达。


2020 is undoubtedly a very unusual year. Many students and friends conveyed their hope to learn Chinese expressions related to the development of COVID-19 events in different periods.


杨老师特意在2021新年伊始,与大家一起回顾此次肆虐全球的新冠大流行,将疫情发生的重大事件梳理如下,希望对大家的汉语学习有帮助。


JYang specially reviewed with you all the COVID-19 pandemic that is raging around the world at the beginning of the 2021 new year, and sorted out the major events of the epidemic as follows, hoping to help  learn Chinese.

(杨老师为保证可靠与严谨,对所列疫情事件的日期及出处均经过文献检索核实,如发现差误请及时告知)。
(In order to ensure reliability and preciseness, JYang has verified the dates and sources of the listed epidemic events through literature search. If any error is found, please inform me in time).

 

 

✦1937年,在鸡的体内发现最初的冠状病毒。
✦1960年,检测出禽类传染性支气管炎病毒。
✦1965年,分离出人类冠状病毒229E及OC43。
✦2002年,在中国广东开始出现最初的非典型肺炎,即严重急性呼吸综合征,这是冠状病毒第一次在人类传播
✦2003年,爆发全球性非典肺炎,该毒株被命名为SARS冠状病毒。
✦2004年,发现人类冠状病毒NL63。
✦2005年,发现人类冠状病毒HKU1。
✦2012年9月23日,在沙特发现首例中东呼吸综合征冠状病毒患者,这是冠状病毒第二次在人类传播
✦2013年1月SARS冠状病毒中间宿主被锁定为果子狸。
✦2017年SARS冠状病毒源头宿主被确定为蝙蝠。

✦In 1937, the first coronavirus was found in chickens.
✦In 1960, avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was detected.
✦In 1965, human coronavirus 229E and OC43 were separated out.
✦In 2002, the first atypical pneumonia, namely Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS, found in Guangdong, China. This is the first coronavirus transmission in humans.
✦In 2003, a global SARS broke out and the strain was named SARS coronavirus.
✦In 2004, human coronavirus NL63 was found.
✦In 2005, human coronavirus HKU1 was found.
✦On September 23, 2012, the first case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) was found in Saudi Arabia. This is the second coronavirus transmission in humans.
✦In January 2013, the intermediate host of SARS coronavirus was identified to be civets.
✦in 2017, the original host of SARS was identified to be bats.


疫情第2阶段:新型冠状病毒
Epidemic Phase 2: novel coronavirus

注 Note
这是冠状病毒第三次在人类传播
This is the third coronavirus transmission in humans.

  1. 新冠病毒初期阶段

✦2019初,日本在两份血液样本中检测到新冠病毒。
✦2019年3月,西班牙在采集的废水中检测到新冠病毒。
✦2019年9月意大利存在新冠病毒感染。2019年10月检测到4名志愿者存在新冠病毒抗体。
✦2019年11月,美国新泽西州贝尔维尔市长迈克尔·梅勒姆发现自己感染新冠病毒,此时他已拥有新冠病毒抗体。
✦2019年11月,法国阿尔萨斯地区存在至少1名新冠肺炎患者。
✦2019年11月,巴西下水道水样中发现新冠病毒。
✦2019年12月,美国在39人血液中检测出冠狀病毒抗体。
✦2019年12月,新冠病毒已在法国传播。
✦2020年1月,病毒已经在美国加州传播。2020年2月美国加利福尼亚州两名被确诊为新冠肺炎的患者死于家中。
✦2020年1月24日,法国确诊3例新冠肺炎病例。
✦2020年2月之前,全球最主要的新冠病毒毒株为“D株”,当时主要传播于美洲和欧洲。
✦2020年2月初,新冠病毒发生第一次重大变异,即D614G突变,当时主要传播于美洲和欧洲。
注1
中国的病毒样本带有D614G突变,确认为欧洲 D614G毒株的分支。
注2
新冠病毒变种分为A、B、C三个类型。A类被称为“爆发根源”的原始类型,主要存在于美国和澳大利亚; B类即毒株A类病毒的变异体是中国境内的主要类型; C类在欧洲大规模传播。 

1. The early stage of novel coronavirus
✦In early 2019, novel coronaviruses in two blood samples were detected in Japan.
✦In March 2019, SARS-CoV-2 were detected in collected waste water in Spain.
✦in September 2019,There was a novel coronavirus infection in Italy. In October 2019, 4 volunteers were detected to have antibodies to novel coronavirus.
✦In November 2019, Michael Melham, mayor of Belleville, New Jersey, United States, found himself infected with novel coronavirus, and at the time being he already had antibodies to novel coronavirus.
✦In November 2019, there was at least one patient with COVID-19 in Alsace, France.
✦In November 2019, novel coronaviruses were found in sewer water samples in Brazil.
✦In December 2019, antibodies to novel coronavirus in the blood from 39 people were detected in America.
✦In December 2019, novel coronavirus already spread in France.
✦In January 2020, novel coronaviruses already spread in California, USA. Two patients diagnosed with Covid-2019 in California, USA, died at home in February 2020.
✦On January 24, 2020, 3 novel coronary pneumonia cases were confirmed in France.
✦Prior to February 2020, the world's  major novel coronavirus strain was "D strain", which mainly spread in America and Europe at that time.
✦In early February 2020, the first major mutation of novel coronavirus, namely the D614G mutation, occurred, and mainly spread in America and Europe.
Note 1
Coronavirus samples in China carry the D614G mutation, identified as a branch of the European D614G strain.
Note 2
Novel coronavirus variants are classified into three categories, A, B, and C. Type A is said to be the original type of viruses, known as the "root of the outbreak"; Type B, type A virus variants, is the dominant type in China; Type C was widely spread in Europe. 

 

2.新冠病毒疫情爆发阶段

✦2019年12月26日,中国武汉张继先医生接诊3名可疑流感患者,于次日上报疾控中心,成为中国最早新冠病毒疫情吹哨人。
✦2019年12月30日,中国正式宣布检测到病毒。
✦2020年1月12日,中国测定出核酸序列并向全世界公布,同日被世界卫生组织命名为“2019新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)”。
✦2020年1月23日,武汉封城。
✦2020年2月8日,中国将新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎暂时命名为新型冠状病毒肺炎,简称新冠肺炎(NCP)。
✦2020年2月11日,世界卫生组织将新冠病毒引发的疾病命名为“2019 冠状病毒病”(COVID-19)。
✦2020年4月8日,武汉解除封锁。
✦ 2020年4月26日,武汉在院新冠肺炎患者清零。
✦2020年5月,武汉进行全民核酸检测。
✦2020年6月,武汉宣布疫情彻底结束。

2.The outbreak stage of novel coronavirus
✦On December 26, 2019, Dr. Zhang Jixian from Wuhan, China, checked 3 suspicious flu patients and reported to the Center for Disease Control, CDC the next day, thus being the earliest whistler for novel coronavirus epidemic in China.
✦On December 30, 2019, China officially announced the detection of the coronavirus.
✦On January 12, 2020, China determined the nucleic acid sequence and announced to the world. On the same day, it was named "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" by the WHO.
✦On January 23, 2020, Wuhan was closed.
✦On February 8, 2020, China tentatively named the pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus as novel coronavirus pneumonia, or NCP for short.
✦On February 11, 2020, WHO named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as COVID-19.
✦On April 8, 2020, the lockdown of Wuhan was lifted.
✦On April 26, 2020, COVID-19 in the hospitals of Wuhan was cleared.
✦In May 2020, universal nucleic acid testing in Wuhan was conducted.
✦In June 2020, Wuhan declared the end of the outbreak.

 

3.新冠病毒疫情大流行阶段

✦2020年1月21日,美国宣布第1例确诊新冠病毒病例。
✦2020年1月30日,美国宣布第4例确诊新冠病毒病例。
✦2020年3月,美国及全球疫情开始急剧直线上升,保持至今。
✦2020年3月26日为止,全球新冠肺炎确诊病例累计超过46万,累死亡超2.1万例。美国确诊病例超过8.3万,死亡超过1,000人,成为全球疫情规模最严重的国家,保持此记录至今。
✦2020年8月31日,全球累计确诊病例突破2,537万例,死亡病例超过85万例。美国确诊病例超617万例,累计死亡病例超过18.7万例。

3.The pandemic stage of novel coronavirus
✦On January 21, 2020, the United States announced the first confirmed COVID-19 case.
✦On January 30, 2020, the United States announced the fourth confirmed COVID-19 case.
✦In March 2020,  the U.S. and world epidemic began a dramatic linear increase that has held to date.
✦As of March 26, 2020, the total number of confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide exceeded 460,000, and deaths exceeded 21,000. In America there were more than 83,000 confirmed cases and more than 1,000 deaths, making it the “Number One” outbreak country in the world, and it held the record to this day.
✦On August 31, 2020, the total number of confirmed cases worldwide exceeded 25.37 million, and the number of deaths exceeded 850,000. There were more than 6.17 million confirmed cases in America, and its
deaths exceeded 187,000.

 

4.新冠病毒的人与动物互传冷链传播阶段

✦2020年8月,美国发生野生水貂由人感染新冠病毒,至少有1万只水貂因感染新冠病毒死亡。
✦2020年11月7日,世界卫生组织报告丹麦、美国、瑞典、意大利、荷兰、西班牙6个国家发生水貂感染新冠病毒病例。
 2020年8至9月新冠病毒发生第二次重大突变。丹麦发现5种与水貂相关的新冠病毒变体cluster 1至 cluster 5,从水貂回传到人类身上并已感染了14人。在荷兰也发生人被水貂感染新冠病毒病例。
✦水貂被确认是新冠病毒传播的中间宿主。
✦2020年11月9日,中国(上海)首次发现源自北美的冷冻链运输造成输入型新冠病毒跨国传播。

4.Human-to-animal transmission and "cold-chain transmission" stage of novel coronavirus
✦In August 2020, wild minks were infected with COVID-19 transmitted from humans in the United States. At least 10,000 minks died of COVID-19.
✦On November 7, 2020, WHO reported cases of mink infection with COVID-19 in 6 countries including Denmark, the United States, Sweden, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain.
✦Between August and September 2020, he second major mutation of the new coronavirus occurred . Denmark detected five variants of COVID-19, cluster 1 to cluster 5, related to mink, which were transmitted back to humans from mink and infected 14 people. There were also cases of human infections with COVID-19 in the Netherlands.
✦Mink is identified to be the intermediate host of COVID-19 transmission.
✦On November 9, 2020, China (Shanghai) for the first time found transnational transmission of imported COVID-19 cause by cold-chain transportation from North America caused .


疫情第3阶段:传染性更强的变异新冠病毒
Epidemic Phase 3:  more infectious mutated novel coronavirus

✦2020年9月20日,发生新冠病毒第三次重大突变,英国首次分离出新冠变异毒株。
✦2020年11月,德国发现源自英国的变异新冠病毒。
✦2020年11月底,英国首次曝光与新变种有关病例的增加,但仍未公开基因组数据。
✦2020年12月初,荷兰发现源自英国的变异新冠毒株。
✦2020年12月14日,英国向世卫组织报告新的新冠病毒变体,被命名为“VUI-202012/01或B.1.1.7。
✦2020年12月14日后,这种源自英国的变异新冠病毒迅速传播到瑞典、德国、澳大利亚、意大利、日本、韩国、加拿大、冰岛、荷兰、智利、中国、越南等30多个国家。
✦12月15日,印度在新冠病毒康复患者体内检测出罕见的真菌导致的罕见毛霉菌病,死亡率为50%,目前正在印度蔓延。
✦2020年12月23日,英国出现第2种传染性强的新冠变异毒株。
✦2020年12月18日发现新冠病毒第4次重大变异,南非检测到一种新冠病毒变体501Y.V2。随后又发现一种传染性更强的新的变异新冠病毒。

✦On September 20, 2020, the third major mutation of novel coronavirus occurred, and the novel coronavirus mutant strain was separated out for the first time in the UK.
✦In November 2020, Germany detected mutated novel coronaviruses from the UK.
✦At the end of November 2020, the UK exposed the increased cases related to the new variant for the first time, but the genome data remained undisclosed.
✦In early December 2020, a new mutant novel coronavirus strain originating from the U K was detected in the Netherlands.
✦On December 14, 2020, the UK reported to WHO a new novel coronavirus variant, which was named VUI-202012/01 or B.1.1.7.
✦After December 14, 2020, this new mutated novel coronavirus originating from the UK swiftly spread to more than 30 countries, including Sweden, Germany, Australia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Iceland, the Netherlands, Chile, China, Vietnam, etc.
✦On December 15, India detected rare mucormycosis caused by a rare fungus in patients recovered from COVID-19, with a mortality rate of 50%. It is currently widely spreading in India.
✦On December 23, 2020, the second highly infectious COVID-19 mutant appeared in the UK.
✦on December 18, 2020, the fourth major mutation of novel coronavirus was found. In South Africa, a new novel coronavirus variant 501Y.V2 was nidetected, and later a new mutant novel coronavirus more infectious was found.

 

最后,杨老师要说:
In the end, JYang would like to say:

我们先看一眼2021新年元旦的最新疫情:
✦2021.1.1,美国仅此一天之内确诊病例超过40万,死亡3,437例。累计确诊病例则超过2,044万,死亡超过35万例。确诊病例在53天之内净增超过1,000万,可见疫情之严重失控!
✦2021.1.1为止,新冠病毒蔓延至全球207个国家,确诊病例超过8,401万人,死亡人数超过182万。

Let's first take a glance at the latest outbreak on 2021 New Year's Day:
✦On January 1, 2021, in America more than 400,000 cases were confirmed and 3,437 deaths in a single day. The cumulative number of confirmed cases exceeded 20.44 million, with more than 350,000 deaths. The confirmed cases increased by more than 10 million within 53 days, revealing that the epidemic is completely out of control!
✦As of January 1, 2021, the novel coronavirus had spread to 207 countries around the world, with more than 84.01 million confirmed cases and more than 1.82 million deaths.

盘点疫情大事记,有助于了解疫情的真相和前世今生。新冠病毒非常狡猾,留给我们的时间真的不很多了。幸好多种疫苗研制成功。2021年是带来希望的一年。希望天下所有的人在新的一年都平安、健康、快乐!

Reviewing the memorabilia of the epidemic will be helpful to understand the truth of the outbreak and its past lives. Novel coronavirus is very cunning, and we really don’t have much time left. Fortunately, multiple vaccines have been successfully developed. 2021 is a year of hope. May all the people in the world be safe, healthy and happy in this new year!

 

                        

 

杨老师有个温馨建议

课后你在家里做什么?如果你有意参加HSK的话,杨老师有个建议,你可以访问杨老师的汉语教学网站 jyangkul.net 的“汉语水平考试 HSK”栏目中的“考试资料HSK Materials”,在那里杨老师已经放进去很多很多非常有用的HSK学习资料供你自学,从HSK一级到六级,包括“HSK标准教程”(课本、音频、练习册、PDF下载)等。祝大家学习进步!                             

JYang has a warm suggestion

What do you do after class at home? If you want to take HSK, Jyang has a suggestion. You may vist "考试资料 HSK Materials" in the "汉语水平考试 HSK" section of Jyang’s website jyangkul.net, where JYang has put a lot of very useful HSK learning materials for your self-study, from Level 1 to Level 6, including "HSK Standard Courses" (textbook, audio, workbook, PDF for download), etc. Have a great progress in learning Chinese! 


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